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1/74. peliosis hepatis with initial presentation as acute hepatic failure and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in children.

    peliosis hepatis, a condition characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunar spaces in the liver, usually has a chronic presentation pattern and is mainly reported in adult patients in association with chronic wasting disorders and after administration of various drugs. The present report concerns two previously healthy young children in whom peliosis hepatis initially presented as acute hepatic failure and who had Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Both patients had active intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the peliotic liver lesions, and liver ultrasonography showed multiple hypoechoic areas of different sizes, which in this context should suggest the diagnosis. One child died from hypovolemic shock and the other recovered. This study indicates that acute peliosis hepatis can be a serious life-threatening disease in children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = pyelonephritis
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2/74. Emphysematous pyelonephritis related to specific gas-forming Escherichia coli without diabetes mellitus.

    A 60-year-old-man without a history of diabetes mellitus, or invasive manipulation or obstruction of the urinary tract was admitted for septic shock. Type I emphysematous pyelonephritis was clear in this case: gas within the renal parenchyma extending into the subcapsular region and the perirenal space was present on spiral computerised tomography (CT). Surgical nephrectomy was performed because biochemistry, urography and CT identified a damaged non-functioning left kidney. The outcome was favourable. All urine, blood and nephrectomy specimen cultures were positive for a specific Escherichia coli which produced a high level of gas compared to a reference E. coli strain in the same standard medium, despite the absence of diabetes mellitus. Certain strains of bacteria are able to produce high levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen and such fermentation in the absence of a high glucose serum level might explain the acute gas-producing bacterial renal infection.
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ranking = 5
keywords = pyelonephritis
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3/74. Acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections in the elderly: report of a case.

    A case of acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) in an extremely elderly woman (98 years-old) is reported. She was admitted to our hospital with a history of increasing pain localized in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed appendicolithiasis and periappendiceal fluid. An appendectomy and closure of the perforated cecum was performed. On the 5th post-operative day, the patient developed skin erythemas and crepitation in the right lower quadrant. An exploration and drainage of the recent operative incision was performed under the diagnosis of NSTIs. Despite the declining overall incidence of appendicitis, it has been increasing among the elderly. The elderly patients are associated with underlying defects in immune function. NSTIs, which are characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis of soft tissue, comprise a spectrum of disease ranging from necrosis of the skin to life-threatening infections. The most common etiology of NSTIs was post-operative infections of the abdominal wall, which primarily occurred after operations with extensive fecal contamination. NSTIs are no longer a rare post-operative complication in the elderly and initial treatment should be selected according to the condition of the patient.
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ranking = 0.0041275804128316
keywords = necrotizing
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4/74. Postoperative synergistic gangrene after spinal fusion.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of synergistic necrotizing gangrenous fasciitis after spinal surgery is reported. OBJECTIVES: To describe this unusual complication, explain the rationale of treatment, and increase awareness of this serious postoperative complication. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although several cases of postoperative synergistic necrotizing fasciitis have been reported, there are no previously reported cases of this condition after spinal surgery. methods: A rapidly progressive necrotizing spinal wound infection after fusion for degenerative disc disease was treated in a 39-year-old man. RESULTS: The infection was successfully treated with serial debridements, appropriate antibiotics, and hyperbaric wound oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: The authors suggest adherence to the fundamental principles of treatment including radical surgical debridement and appropriate antibiosis for necrotizing gangrene after spinal surgery. In evaluation of aggressive spinal wound infections, diagnosis of synergistic necrotizing fasciitis should be kept in mind. Although hyperbaric wound oxygenation was implemented as an adjunct and appeared to aid in controlling the infection, its effect on outcome is not clear.
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ranking = 0.0041275804128316
keywords = necrotizing
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5/74. Emphysematous pyelonephritis- conversion of type i to type II appearance on serial CT studies.

    Recently, emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) has been classified into two subtypes based on CT findings. We recently experienced a patient whose CT image changed from type I (extensive destruction of the renal parenchyma with a large amount of air density without any fluid collection) to type II (containing a large amount of fluid) during the course of conservative treatment. We believe that some patients with type I EPN can change to type II EPN.
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ranking = 5
keywords = pyelonephritis
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6/74. Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, severe, necrotizing form of renal infection characterized by the presence of gas within the renal parenchyma or perinephric space. In patients suspected of emphysematous pyelonephritis, computed tomography scan should be done promptly. Based on the available data and this case, surgical intervention appears to be the preferred treatment.
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ranking = 6.0008255160826
keywords = pyelonephritis, necrotizing
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7/74. Hemoglobinopathy with prolonged bactermia. A report of two cases.

    Prolonged Escherichia coli bacteremia occurred as a complication of pyelonephritis in two patients with abnormal hemoglobins (SC and SS), despite "appropriate" antibiotic therapy. Careful investigation in each case failed to account for the persistent sepsis. Pyogenic arthritis ultimately developed in both patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = pyelonephritis
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8/74. Fatal emphysematous pyelonephritis with gas in the spinal extradural space in a patient with diabetes.

    BACKGROUND: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) is a rare but life-threatening condition of the upper urinary tract, characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma and perirenal space. The vast majority of patients with EP (90%) are known to have diabetes, with Escherichia coli being the most common causative pathogen. CASE REPORT: We present a case of fatal bilateral EP in a patient with diabetes, with an unusual radiological finding of gas around the spinal cord and in the psoas muscle, with renal parenchymal sparing. Our case serves as an important reminder of this life threatening entity in diabetic patients, which is not well recognized by clinicians because of its rarity.
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ranking = 5
keywords = pyelonephritis
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9/74. Necrotizing fasciitis of the scalp in a neonate.

    We report an 11-day-old baby who presented with necrotizing fasciitis of the scalp from which Escherichia coli was cultured. Treatment consisted of administration of parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics and debridement. skin grafting of the resulting scalp defect was not permitted by the parents. The wound healed with scar tissue over 3 months.
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ranking = 0.00082551608256632
keywords = necrotizing
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10/74. Emphysematous urinoma in a renal transplant patient.

    Urinary infection is a common complication after kidney transplantation. In some instances, especially with escherichia coli infections, there is formation and collection of gas in the parenchyma and collecting system of the kidney, giving rise to the condition of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Such a process could occur in collections of urine (urinoma) secondary to ureteric leak in the transplant kidney. This process has not been described so far. In this report, we describe the first case of an infected urinoma with an interesting radiologic finding, a so-called emphysematous urinoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = pyelonephritis
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