Cases reported "Esophageal Achalasia"

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1/50. Repair of esophageal perforation after treatment for achalasia.

    esophageal perforation after treatment for achalasia is a devastating complication. Successful closure of the perforation and relief of the obstruction from achalasia are paramount. This can be accomplished by careful closure of the mucosa. The mucosal closure is buttressed by a pedicled intercostal muscle carefully sewn to the edges of the muscular defect. This approach deals effectively with the perforation and maintains the myotomy for relief of esophageal obstruction from achalasia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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2/50. Rapidly developing airway obstruction resulting from achalasia of the oesophagus.

    Megaoesophagus resulting from achalasia is a rare but serious cause of airway obstruction. The exact aetiology remains unclear. Although 29 cases have previously been reported, the potential need for urgent treatment has not been sufficiently emphasized. Some forms of treatment with drugs or decompression with a fine tube have been advocated but emergency tracheal intubation may become necessary. A 90-year-old lady had a bolus of food lodged in her oesophagus but with no respiratory symptoms. The bolus was removed under anaesthesia. Six weeks later she suffered similar symptoms after eating but developed severe airway obstruction over 10 min. Emergency intubation of the trachea was necessary before removing the food bolus under general anaesthesia. This case demonstrates the urgency with which these patients may need to be treated. The condition can rapidly worsen due to swallowing of air and saliva.
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ranking = 40.763531558069
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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3/50. Achalasia presenting as acute airway obstruction.

    Achalasia presenting as acute airway obstruction is an uncommon complication. We report the case of an elderly woman with previously undiagnosed achalasia who presented with acute respiratory distress due to megaesophagus. Emergency endotracheal intubation and insertion of a catheter into the esophagus, with continuous aspiration was required. Upon introduction of the esophageal catheter an abruptand audible air decompression occurred, with marked improvement of the clinical picture. Endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin was chosen as the definitive treatment with good clinical result. The pathophysiology of the phenomenon of esophageal blowing in achalasia is unclear, but different hypothetical mechanisms have been suggested. One postulated mechanism is an increase in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) residual pressure or abnormal UES relaxation with swallowing in achalasia patients. We reviewed the UES manometric findings in 50 achalasia patients and compared it with measurement performed in 45 healthy controls. We did not find any abnormalities in UES function in any of our achalasia patients group, or in the case under study. An alternative hypothesis postulates that airway compromise in patients with achalasia results from the loss UES belch reflex (abnormal UES relaxation during esophageal air distension), and in fact, an abnormal UES belch reflex was evidenced in our case.
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ranking = 34.13089015556
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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4/50. Transient mega-esophagus in a neonate with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Esophageal dilatation (ED) in neonates is rare. In the present case, ED was detected in a chest radiograph following repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in a term neonate. A roentgenographic swallow study on the seventh day of life demonstrated ED and a sub-diaphragmatic stomach. The infant thrived adequately on enteral feeding. A swallow study on the twentieth day of life showed a normal-width esophagus with gastroesophageal reflux and small hiatus hernia. The longstanding herniated stomach in the fetus apparently caused kinking, edema, and obstruction of the gastroesophageal junction. This led to a significant ED and concealment of gastroesophageal reflux. We aim to arouse awareness about the occurrence of ED with CDH, and about its benign course under conservative management.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = obstruction
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5/50. Achalasia in siblings in infancy.

    Achalasia is rare in children, more so familial. We report two siblings with familial achalasia who presented in their infancy with vomiting and failure to thrive. Achalasia can be misdiagnosed as upper gastrointestinal obstruction as happened in one of our siblings. Esophageal contrast roentgenography is diagnostic. Both the children were treated successfully by transabdominal esophagomyotomy with fundoplication.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = obstruction
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6/50. Development of achalasia secondary to laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

    Dysphagia after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is commonly attributed to edema and/or improperly constructed wraps, and in some instances the cause can be difficult to identify. We report, for the first time, the development of secondary achalasia after LNF as a cause of late-onset postoperative dysphagia. A total of 250 consecutive patients undergoing LNF were analyzed for the development of postoperative dysphagia at a university hospital. patients were considered to have secondary achalasia if they met the following four criteria: (1) preoperative manometry demonstrating normal peristalsis and normal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation; (2) lack of esophageal peristalsis on postoperative manometry or fluoroscopy with or without incomplete LES relaxation; (3) no mucosal lesions seen on endoscopy; and (4) dysphagia refractory to dilatation. The following three groups of patients were identified: patients who developed secondary achalasia (group A, n = 7); patients with persistent dysphagia requiring and responding to postoperative dilatation (group B, n = 12 patients); and patients whose postoperative recovery was not complicated by dysphagia (group C, n = 231). The groups were comparable in terms of all preoperative variables except for age. patients in group A were older than those in group B (57 years [range 27 to 66 years] vs. 36.5 years [range 27 to 63 years], P = 0.028) but were not significantly older than patients in group C (45 years [range 20 to 84 years], P = 0.42). The onset of severe dysphagia was later in group A than in group B (135 days [range 15 to 300 days] vs. 20 days [range 9 to 70 days], P = 0.002). The median weight loss in group A was also significantly greater than in Group B (15 pounds [range 11 to 44 pounds] vs. 4 pounds [range 0 to 15 pounds], P = 0.0007). Two patients in group A who underwent reoperation failed to improve. Botulinum toxin injections were tried in two patients and Heller myotomy in one with good results. Nine patients in group B improved promptly after one dilatation, and three improved after two dilatations. Secondary achalasia should be considered as one of the causes of persistent dysphagia after an apparently successful antireflux operation. Secondary achalasia tends to occur in older patients and is characterized by a delayed onset of symptoms. Imaging studies are a reliable means of excluding mechanical obstruction as a cause of secondary achalasia, and a negative result should raise the suspicion of secondary achalasia. Esophageal motility studies are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Failure to consider the diagnosis of secondary achalasia can lead to multiple fruitless attempts at dilatation or even inappropriate reoperations.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = obstruction
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7/50. Esophageal obstruction due to intermuscular hematoma following pneumatic dilatation.

    A case of incomplete esophageal perforation with an intermuscular hematoma is presented. Unlike previously described submucosal or intramural perforations, this case involved mucosa, submucosa, and the inner circular muscle layer but was limited by the outer longitudinal layer. Nonsurgical treatment was followed when the clinical picture of an incomplete perforation without mediastinal soilage was considered. Surgery was done when evidence of impending extension of the process outside the esophagus developed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = obstruction
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8/50. Esophageal motor dysfunction in idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction.

    Five patients with idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction were studied with esophageal manometry and all had abnormalities of esophageal motility. In 2, primary peristalsis was replaced by simultaneous contractions and repetitive spontaneous activity was marked. The lower esophageal sphincter failed to relax and the Mecholyl test was positive in both. In the other 3, primary peristalsis was absent, low amplitude simultaneous waves followed swallows, no spontaneous activity was present, and defects in lower esophageal sphincter relaxation were found in two. The Mecholyl test was negative in the one patient tested. The esophagus appears to be abnormal in idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction and could prove useful as an organ for diagnostic study in patients who may have this syndrome.
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ranking = 3
keywords = obstruction
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9/50. Achalasia cardia and gastric outlet stenosis in a postmenopausal woman: case report.

    The orderly contractility of the oesophagus and the regulated ability of the pyloric sphincter allow the influx and efflux of gastric contents. When these physiological processes are impaired, gastric luminal transit is altered as expected in achalasia cardia and gastric outlet obstruction. movement across the inlet and outlet of the stomach is therefore altered. A case of a 58-year old woman diagnosed with simultaneous occurrence of achalasia cardia and gastric outlet stenosis resulting from chronic duodenal ulcer is presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical, radiological and intraoperative findings. This patient has remained well after a simultaneous anterior cardiomyotomy and H-M pyloroplasty. To my knowledge this is the first time that such an association causing gastric "inlet" and "outlet" obstruction has been reported.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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10/50. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis secondary to esophageal compression.

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is most commonly caused by trauma, malignancy, and neurologic disorders. Cases secondary to esophageal compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerves are rare. We report a patient admitted with an exacerbation of achalasia who developed acute respiratory distress from bilateral immobile vocal cords. Imaging studies revealed impressive dilation of the cervical esophagus causing compression of both recurrent laryngeal nerves. After securing the airway and decompression of the esophagus, mobility of the vocal cords returned within 1 week. This case shows the importance of a careful airway workup in patients with esophageal distention. Early decompression may prevent permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and airway obstruction.
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ranking = 7.1164829740165
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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