Cases reported "Esophageal Fistula"

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1/19. Epiphrenic diverticulum composed of airway components attributed to a bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation: report of a case.

    Bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation (BPFM), defined originally as pulmonary sequestration with or without communication to the esophagus, has been acknowledged to include congenital foregut diverticula. We present herein the case of a 43-year-old woman with a 9-year history of dysphagia, in whom a barium meal examination demonstrated a 2.5-cm epiphrenic diverticulum and several fistulae. A laparotomy was performed and the lower esophagus without communication to the lung was pulled down and resected, followed by an esophagogastrostomy carried out with fundopexy. Since her operation, the patient has been free of symptoms. Histologically, the diverticulum was observed to be lined by stratified squamous cells, but its shape was formed by mural cartilage, smooth muscle cells, and three ciliated-cell cysts. The dysphagia was considered to have been derived from the kinked esophagus created by the rigid diverticulum, being the possible developmental arrest of a supernumerary lung bud. These findings indicate that this case may involve BPFM in the broad sense. Although several cases of bronchogenic cysts located beneath or across the diaphragm have been reported as a subgroup of BPFM, congenital epiphrenic diverticula has rarely been described.
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2/19. Congenital broncho-esophageal fistula in the adult.

    The case of a 62-year-old woman with a type II congenital broncho-esophageal fistula is presented. She had had recurrent pulmonary infections that were more prominent in the last 15 years. A barium swallow examination showed a communication between the esophagus and the right lower lobe. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed right middle and lower lobe bronchiectasis. bronchoscopy was unremarkable. At thoracotomy bronchoesophageal fistula was divided and the esophageal end was repaired in two layered fashion and reinforced by pediculed parietal pleural flap. Right middle and lower lobectomies were performed. Demonstration of the broncho-esophageal fistula and assessment of the status of the pulmonary parenchyma are important steps prior to surgery.
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3/19. Primary aorto-esophageal fistula due to Takayasu's aortitis.

    BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal dilatation in Takayasu's arteritis is a recognized complication; however, fistula formation, especially to the esophagus, is very rare. methods: A 22-year-old male presented with severe hematemesis. Investigation by means of esophagogastroscopy and CT scan revealed a saccular aneurysm in the proximal descending aorta with communication to the esophagus. The patient was taken to theater, the aneurysm excised and replaced by a graft. RESULTS: Gross examination of the aneurysm showed multiple points of outpouching from the aneurysm. Histopathological examination of the showed marked intimal fibromyxoid thickening, loss of outer medial muscle and elastic fibers and marked fibrosis of the adventitial layer. The histological features were in keeping with Takayasu's arteritis. No evidence of tuberculosis was noted. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates an unusual complication of Takayasu's arteritis, in the form of a fistula between the aorta and the esophagus, which resulted in massive hematemesis and the ultimate demise of the patient.
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4/19. Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: classification and embryogenesis.

    Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (CBPFMs) are characterized by a fistula between an isolated portion of respiratory tissue (ie, a lung, a lung lobe, or a segment) and esophagus or stomach. We combine our 30-year (1959 to 1989) experience of 6 cases with 51 reported patients to propose a CBPFM classification supported by a proposed embryogenesis theory. Group I (16%): anomaly is associated with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Group II (33%): one lung originates from the lower esophagus. Group III (46%): an isolated anatomic lung lobe or segment communicates with the esophagus or stomach. Group IV (5%): A portion of the normal bronchial system communicates with the esophagus. The portion of the lung served by the communicating bronchus receives systemic blood supply. The right and left lung sacs curve dorsally to embrace the lower esophagus during normal lung development. At this stage a part of the lung bud joins the esophagus. This segment then breaks away from the main pulmonary anlage to form a CBPFM. CBPFMs should be considered in the workup of infants with respiratory distress and/or recurrent pneumonias. patients with suspected pulmonary sequestration should undergo contrast studies to exclude a gastrointestinal communication.
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5/19. Aortoesophageal fistula due to double aortic arch and prolonged nasogastric intubation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: The authors present a patient and describe other cases from the literature which demonstrate that prolonged use of nasogastric tubes can result in life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula formation in patients with a double aortic arch. CONCLUSION: Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an abnormal communication between the esophagus and the aorta. It can cause massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We present an infant with an operatively corrected double aortic arch, who developed this complication after prolonged nasogastric intubation.
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6/19. Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. A unifying etiological concept.

    Two cases of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformation are reported and another 27 cases reviewed and the findings analyzed. The left lower lobe and the entire right lung are the most common locations of pulmonary involvement. The distal portion of the esophagus or cardioesophageal junction was the most common site of communication (83%). The majority of the patients (60%) presented in the first eight months of life, and the incidence in females was nearly twice that in males. Chronic cough, recurrent pneumonias and respiratory distress were the most common clinical findings, whereas two patients were totally asymptomatic. The esophagogram was the single most useful diagnostic procedure (82%). The microscopic structure of the congenital fistula resembled esophagus, bronchus or both. Surgical treatment was curative in most instances. Sime deaths occurred prior to corrective surgery, whereas the postoperative deaths in most instances were related to severe associated congenital anomalies. We believe a common embryologic pathogenesis leads to the formation of a variety of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. These bronchopulmonary foregut malformations include intralobar and extralobar sequestrations, pulmonary sequestration with patent, or involuted--partial or complete--gastroesophageal communication, esophageal or gastric diverticula, and esophageal or bronchogenic duplication cysts.
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7/19. Spontaneous internal drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.

    Six cases are reported in which spontaneous internal drainage between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the alimentary tract became established. In each instance the communication was demonstrated radiologically. The clinical circumstances and radiographic features of these cases are described, and the existing literature pertaining to this phenomenon is reviewed.
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8/19. Arterioenteric fistulae: diagnosis and treatment by angiography.

    Two cases of massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage caused by arterioenteric fistulae are presented. In both cases, bleeding was controlled by interventional angiography. In the first case, a fistula between an aberrant right subclavian artery and a reconstructed oesophagus was temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter as a pre-surgical measure. In the second case a communication between the external iliac artery and the colon in a patient with invasive cervical cancer was treated by embolization. An arterioenteric fistula should be considered as a possible cause of acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in post-operative or cancer patients and aortography or pelvic arteriography may be required to make the diagnosis.
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9/19. Esophageal fistulas associated with mycobacterial infection in patients at risk for AIDS.

    Although opportunistic infections of the esophagus occur commonly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation is generally limited to the mucosal surface. During a 7-month interval, six men at risk for AIDS underwent barium esophagography because of persistent symptoms of esophageal disease. In each case, transmural inflammation of the esophagus was found (esophagomediastinal communication in three cases and esophagobronchial fistulas in three cases). Two patients had an esophagoesophageal fistula, an inflammatory lesion that has not, to the authors' knowledge, been previously described with mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterial infection was documented by means of culture findings in all six patients (mycobacterium tuberculosis in five, M avium in one). In three cases mycobacteria were either seen in or cultured from esophageal biopsy specimens. The finding of deep esophageal ulceration, intramural dissection, or fistula formation in a patient with AIDS should suggest the diagnosis of esophageal tuberculosis.
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10/19. Aortoesophageal fistula: case report and literature review.

    Fistulous communication between the aorta and esophagus is a rare but usually fatal disorder. Esophageal foreign bodies have been reported to cause aortoesophageal fistula rarely. Spontaneous aortoesophageal fistula as a result of atherosclerotic disease of the aorta has not been reported. This article describes a case of aortoesophageal fistula caused by an ulcerated atherosclerotic plaque, which we believe is the first case report implicating such an etiologic factor.
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