Cases reported "Esophageal Fistula"

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1/181. Epiphrenic diverticulum composed of airway components attributed to a bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation: report of a case.

    Bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation (BPFM), defined originally as pulmonary sequestration with or without communication to the esophagus, has been acknowledged to include congenital foregut diverticula. We present herein the case of a 43-year-old woman with a 9-year history of dysphagia, in whom a barium meal examination demonstrated a 2.5-cm epiphrenic diverticulum and several fistulae. A laparotomy was performed and the lower esophagus without communication to the lung was pulled down and resected, followed by an esophagogastrostomy carried out with fundopexy. Since her operation, the patient has been free of symptoms. Histologically, the diverticulum was observed to be lined by stratified squamous cells, but its shape was formed by mural cartilage, smooth muscle cells, and three ciliated-cell cysts. The dysphagia was considered to have been derived from the kinked esophagus created by the rigid diverticulum, being the possible developmental arrest of a supernumerary lung bud. These findings indicate that this case may involve BPFM in the broad sense. Although several cases of bronchogenic cysts located beneath or across the diaphragm have been reported as a subgroup of BPFM, congenital epiphrenic diverticula has rarely been described.
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2/181. Combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta.

    We conducted combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta in 2 patients, one with advanced esophageal cancer with aortic invasion and the other aortoesophageal fistula caused by a false aortic aneurysm. Combined resection of esophageal tumor and adjacent involved organs was conducted in 14 patients with A3:T4 esophageal cancer but none survived 3 years and resecting tumor-invaded organs did not improve patient survival. One major problem of combined resection of the esophagus and aorta is contamination of the posterior mediastinum. In 1 patient, 2-stage surgery for the esophagus and in situ aortic replacement was conducted to reduce operative risk and avoiding infection of the prosthetic vascular graft. With thoracic descending aortic aneurysm adjacent to the esophagus on the increase, cardiovascular surgeons should prepared to undertake combined resection of both the aorta and esophagus.
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3/181. Aortoesophageal fistula caused by aneurysm of the thoracic aorta: successful surgical treatment, case report, and literature review.

    Aortoesophageal fistula induced by atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysm is rare, but is usually a fatal disorder, with few survivors reported. We report the case of a 72-year-old man with aortoesophageal fistula successfully treated in a two-stage operation. In the first stage, we performed resection and replacement of the aortic aneurysm with a prosthetic graft in situ, esophagectomy, cervical esophagostomy, and jejunostomy. After the patient recovered well postoperatively, a transmediastinal retrosternal interposition of the stomach was performed, with esophagogastroanastomosis in the cervical area, to re-establish the gastrointestinal tract. We include a discussion of the causes, diagnostic approach, management of the aorta and esophagus, and review of the literature.
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4/181. Ingested ring-pull causing bronchoesophageal fistula and transection of the left main bronchus: successful salvage of the left lung and esophagus five years after injury.

    A 6-year-old girl with a history of ingestion of a ring-pull of a can and a transient episode of stridor had been asymptomatic 3 years before admission when left lung atelectasis with severe respiratory distress developed. fluoroscopy and 3-dimensional computed tomography scan showed bronchoesophageal fistula and the ring-pull around the left main bronchus. At operation, the ring-pull, which transected the left main bronchus, was extracted. The left main bronchus was reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis in spite of insufficient inflation of the collapsed left lung. The esophageal defect was repaired. The patient's respiratory distress gradually disappeared, and the x-ray films 3 months after operation showed complete expansion of the left lung. This case shows the risk of the long-term retained esophageal foreign body and the possibility of pulmonary salvage after long-term total atelectasis of the lung.
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5/181. subclavian artery aneurysm with oesophagoarterial fistula.

    Aneurysms of the subclavian artery are rare. Fistula formation between the subclavian artery and the oesophagus has been described in aberrant subclavian artery and oesophageal foreign body. However, a fistula between a non-aberrant subclavian artery aneurysm and the oesophagus has not been previously reported. In this report, an unusual case of subclavian artery aneurysm with a fistula to the oesophagus causing intractable haematemesis is presented with the angiographic findings.
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6/181. Arterial-esophageal fistulae in patients requiring nasogastric esophageal intubation.

    A rare and potentially fatal cause of hematemesis is fistula formation between the esophagus and the vascular system. A case report of a 39-year-old woman with congenital aortic arch anomalies hospitalized for treatment of head injuries demonstrates the potential for iatrogenic esophageal trauma to initiate fistula formation between the esophagus and an anomalous arterial system. A literature review revealed 6 other cases of vascular-esophageal fistulae caused by nasogastric esophageal intubation. It is concluded that aortic arch anomalies increase the risk of esophageal injury and subsequent fistula formation from nasogastric esophageal intubation. In addition, the clinical features and pathologic findings of vascular-esophageal fistulae are reviewed.
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7/181. Primary aortoesophageal fistula: presenting as massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Primary aortoesophageal fistula is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A six-year-old boy presented with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. endoscopy revealed a submucosal bulge in the esophagus with an ulcer and clot at the top. Lateral skiagram of the chest showed a posterior mediastinal mass. CT scan of the chest revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm into the oesophagus, confirmed the diagnosis. The patient succumbed to the illness before he could be subjected to definitive treatment.
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8/181. Fatal hemorrhage complicating carcinoma of the esophagus. Report of four cases.

    Four cases of esophageal carcinoma complicated by fatal hemorrhage are reported. All four patients had recently completed radiation therapy. An aortoesophageal fistula was present in two cases; fibrinoid necrosis of the esophageal arteries was present in the other two. The esophageal tumor was localized in two cases and had disappeared in one case. In one patient it had metastasized widely. Ninety-nine other reports of esophageal cancer and fatal hemorrhage are reviewed from the literature. Aortoesophageal fistula was the cause of hemorrhage in 78 cases. Occlusion of the vasa vasorum by thrombosis, inflammation, neoplastic cells or radiation injury appears to be the cause of aortic necrosis and fistula formation. Prompt surgical approach, if possible, should be used to control hemorrhage, as the primary tumor may be localized to the esophagus only.
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9/181. Esophagobronchial fistula combined with a peptic esophageal stenosis.

    Peptic strictures are a rare complication of severe gastroesophageal reflux disease. An esophagobronchial fistula as a complication of a severe long-term reflux esophagitis with peptic stenosis is here described for the first time: A 43-year-old mentally disabled patient suffered from recurrent bronchopneumonia. endoscopy revealed an esophagobronchial fistula originating in a peptic stricture. Under short-term fasting, intravenous feeding and application of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) closure of this fistula was achieved within 4 days. Subsequently, dilatation was carried out. The case demonstrates that pulmonary complications in patients with peptic esophageal strictures may not only be due to aspiration of refluxate but--rarely--also to fistulae between the esophagus and the bronchial tree.
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10/181. Congenital broncho-esophageal fistula in the adult.

    The case of a 62-year-old woman with a type II congenital broncho-esophageal fistula is presented. She had had recurrent pulmonary infections that were more prominent in the last 15 years. A barium swallow examination showed a communication between the esophagus and the right lower lobe. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed right middle and lower lobe bronchiectasis. bronchoscopy was unremarkable. At thoracotomy bronchoesophageal fistula was divided and the esophageal end was repaired in two layered fashion and reinforced by pediculed parietal pleural flap. Right middle and lower lobectomies were performed. Demonstration of the broncho-esophageal fistula and assessment of the status of the pulmonary parenchyma are important steps prior to surgery.
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