Cases reported "Esophageal Fistula"

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1/67. Two cases of aorto-gastrointestinal fistula.

    We report two cases of aorto-gastrointestinal fistula. Case 1, a 60-year-old man, suffered from repeat hematemesis. He was preoperatively diagnosed as aortoesophageal fistula with thoracic aortic aneurysm and was successfully treated by graft replacement of the aneurysm. Case 2, a 73-year-old man, presented with massive gastrointestinal bleeding, yet repeat endoscopical examination did not reveal the origin of the bleeding. He died of catastrophic hematochezia. The pathological findings at autopsy revealed an aortoduodenal fistula. These two cases suggested the importance to consider an aorto-gastrointestinal fistula in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
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2/67. Combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta.

    We conducted combined resection of the thoracic esophagus and thoracic descending aorta in 2 patients, one with advanced esophageal cancer with aortic invasion and the other aortoesophageal fistula caused by a false aortic aneurysm. Combined resection of esophageal tumor and adjacent involved organs was conducted in 14 patients with A3:T4 esophageal cancer but none survived 3 years and resecting tumor-invaded organs did not improve patient survival. One major problem of combined resection of the esophagus and aorta is contamination of the posterior mediastinum. In 1 patient, 2-stage surgery for the esophagus and in situ aortic replacement was conducted to reduce operative risk and avoiding infection of the prosthetic vascular graft. With thoracic descending aortic aneurysm adjacent to the esophagus on the increase, cardiovascular surgeons should prepared to undertake combined resection of both the aorta and esophagus.
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3/67. Aortoesophageal fistula caused by aneurysm of the thoracic aorta: successful surgical treatment, case report, and literature review.

    Aortoesophageal fistula induced by atherosclerotic thoracic aortic aneurysm is rare, but is usually a fatal disorder, with few survivors reported. We report the case of a 72-year-old man with aortoesophageal fistula successfully treated in a two-stage operation. In the first stage, we performed resection and replacement of the aortic aneurysm with a prosthetic graft in situ, esophagectomy, cervical esophagostomy, and jejunostomy. After the patient recovered well postoperatively, a transmediastinal retrosternal interposition of the stomach was performed, with esophagogastroanastomosis in the cervical area, to re-establish the gastrointestinal tract. We include a discussion of the causes, diagnostic approach, management of the aorta and esophagus, and review of the literature.
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4/67. Aortoesophageal fistula caused by foreign body.

    Aortoesophageal fistula is rare. A woman who developed aortoesophageal fistula after swallowing a fish bone developed hematemesis. 7 days later, we resected a false aneurysm near the left subclavian artery and repaired this section twice. Despite these measures, the woman died on hospital day 21. The clinical diagnosis was massive hematemesis from an infected aortic wall. The method of diagnosis, control of infection, and operative repair of aortoesophageal fistula are discussed.
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5/67. Esophagogastric fistula secondary to teflon pledget: a rare complication following laparoscopic fundoplication.

    Laparoscopic fundoplication has become the standard operation for gastroesophageal reflux disease. In our service, a laparoscopic fundoplication is performed as a 2-cm floppy 360 degrees wrap with division of the short gastric vessels and the fundoplication is sutured using a prolene 2/0 mattress suture (Ethicon, USA) and buttressed laterally with two teflon pledgets (PTFE 1.85 mm; low porosity, Bard, USA). We report a patient with post-operative dysphagia due to an esophagogastric fistula caused by erosion of a teflon pledget. This is the first such case in 734 laparoscopic fundoplications performed between January 1991 and December 1998. reoperation was required, resulting in a prolonged convalescence. A review of current literature has not revealed any similar cases. Causes for this rare complication are postulated.
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6/67. Primary aorto-oesophageal fistula due to oesophageal carcinoma. Report of a successfully managed case.

    Aorto-oesophageal fistula is a rare but often fatal entity causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Amongst the different aetiologies described, the commonest is rupture of a thoracic aortic aneurysm into the oesophagus. This entity was first reported in 1818, and only recently have successfully treated cases been published. Other causes such as postoperative complications, tuberculosis and trauma are less common. Oesophageal malignancy perforating the aorta is a rarity. The authors describe a case of aortic perforation secondary to an oesophageal carcinoma, treated with initial success. The clinical onset was a massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The diagnosis, once the bleeding was controlled, was arrived at after CT-scanning and arteriography. A Dacron prosthesis was interposed into the descending thoracic aorta to restore aortic flow; later an oesophagectomy plus oesophagostomy and jejunostomy were carried out.
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7/67. Penetrating neck trauma: hidden injuries-oesophagospinal traumatic fistula.

    Injuries to the eosophagus are notoriously difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. patients with such injuries usually will not have pre-operative signs and symptoms to suggest the presence of this type of injury. These injuries require a high index of suspicion, appreciation of the presence of injuries to adjacent structures, and an understanding that the clinical and radiological findings may evolve over a period of time. We describe a child with a rare presentation of an acute traumatic esophageal spinal fistula due to a bullet wound. This complicated injury required a variety of diagnostic modalities, including contrast radiography, multiple computerised tomography (CT) scans and operative assessments to make the definitive diagnosis.
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8/67. Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula and tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia.

    A case of initial esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula in a female newborn, later complicated by pneumonia and a second bronchoesophageal fistula, is reported. She was treated surgically by closure of the tracheoesophageal fistula and by end-to-end esophago-esophageal anastomosis. An esophagram at 1 month of age was normal. Three months later she developed severe, persistent right lower lobe pneumonia that required intensive antibiotic therapy and respiratory support. Esophagography was repeated and revealed a second fistula between the right main-stem bronchus and the lower esophagus. The bronchoesophageal fistula was repaired, and a right lower lobectomy was performed. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated. Histologic examination indicated that the fistula was congenital in origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a congenital bronchoesophageal fistula coexisting with a tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia.
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9/67. Successful management of an aortoesophageal fistula resulting from an aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with a covered stent.

    Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is a relatively rare but life-threatening cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There have been only a few survivors previously reported. There are controversies particularly regarding the treatment of the esophagus and postoperative infections. We report a case of an elderly man with an aortoesophageal fistula resulting from a thoracic aortic aneurysm. We managed the replacement of the aorta using a prosthetic graft, and an omentopexy for the fistula of the esophagus. For the treatment of leakage of the esophageal fistula, we successfully used a covered stent. This is the first report of the management of AEF using a covered stent.
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10/67. Aortoesophageal fistula associated with tuberculous mediastinitis, mimicking esophageal Dieulafoy's disease.

    Aortoesophageal fistula is a rare and lethal disorder that may result from primary diseases of aorta or esophagus, aortic bypass graft, ingestion of foreign body, trauma, surgical procedure or instrumentation. Tuberculous fistula is extremely rare. We present a 27-yr-old female patient with aortoesophageal fistula associated with tuberculous mediastinitis. The patient experienced massive hematemesis and esophagoscopy revealed a small mucosal defect with exudate-coated blood vessel like Dieulafoy 's lesion on about 25 cm from the incisor teeth. Despite two sessions of endoscopic hemostatic procedures, active massive hemorrhage recurred and was controlled effectively with a prompt insertion of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. The patient underwent open thoracotomy, which revealed aortoesophageal fistula. Numerous white-yellowish, millet seed-like tubercles were scattered in pleural and abdominal cavity. Division of fistular tract and esophageal resection with Ivor-Lewis anastomosis were performed. Histopathologic study confirmed tuberculous pleuritis and peritonitis. The patient died of postoperative pulmonary complication.
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