Cases reported "Esophageal Perforation"

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1/16. Traumatic pharyngeal pseudodiverticulum in neonates and infants. Two case reports and review of the literature.

    Thirty one cases of pharyngeal pseudodiverticulum have been reported in the literature; twenty nine were diagnosed during the neonatal period. Respiratory distress, increased oral secretions, difficulty with feeding and the impossibility of passing a nasogastric catheter were the most common symptoms and/or signs. Pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, cervical emphysema and ectopic location of a feeding catheter, alone or in combination, were identified in the chest roentgenograms of 16 patients. Esophagography and/or endoscopy were the diagnostic methods of choice. The exact location of the perforation was identified in 18 patients. Most of the perforations were in either the posterior pharyngeal wall or in the pyriform sinuses. The survival rate was as good amongst the medically treated patients as in those who underwent surgery.
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2/16. Esophageal laceration and charcoal mediastinum complicating gastric lavage.

    A 19-year-old woman underwent multiple attempts at orogastric lavage before success 5 h after ingesting approximately 24 grams of ibuprofen in a suicide attempt. Activated charcoal was administered via the lavage tube. She vomited charcoal shortly after administration and began experiencing difficulty breathing and an increase in the pitch of her voice. A chest X-ray study showed a widened mediastinum, pneumopericardium, and subcutaneous emphysema consistent with esophageal perforation that was confirmed by computed tomography scan. Surgical exploration revealed a tear in the proximal posterior esophagus with charcoal in the posterior mediastinum. She remained intubated for 7 days and was discharged 14 days after admission. This is a report of esophageal perforation with activated charcoal contamination of the mediastinum after gastric lavage. The risks and benefits of this procedure should be carefully considered in each patient prior to its use. Awake patients should be cooperative with the procedure to minimize any risk of trauma to the oropharynx or esophagus.
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3/16. Spontaneous esophageal perforation related to a duodenal ulcer with pyloric stenosis: report of a case.

    This report describes a case of spontaneous esophageal perforation that was considered to be etiologically related to a duodenal ulcer with pyloric stenosis. The patient was a 54-year-old Japanese man who presented following the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and dyspnea after an episode of vomiting. He had a history of duodenal ulcer. Computed tomography revealed an extremely dilated stomach containing abundant food residue, intraabdominal effusion, bilateral pleural effusion, and mediastinal emphysema, findings that strongly suggested esophageal perforation. esophagoscopy confirmed perforation of the lower esophagus. laparotomy revealed marked contamination, including food residue in the abdominal cavity, and a severely dilated stomach attributed to pyloric stenosis caused by a duodenal ulcer. A 2-cm longitudinal perforation was found on the right side of the lower esophagus. Because the patient's general condition was too poor to tolerate a one-stage operation (primary closure of the perforation, gastrectomy, and reconstruction), we initially performed decompression gastrostomy and control of the esophageal leakage with T-tube placement. Following the T-tube was removed 1 month later, distal gastrectomy and reconstruction of the gastrojejunostomy (Billroth II method) could be safely performed.
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4/16. Cuffed esophageal prosthesis: a useful device in desperate situations in esophageal malignancy.

    Sixteen patients (three groups) underwent endoscopic intubation with cuffed Wilson-Cook esophageal endoprostheses. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with spontaneous esophago-respiratory fistulas due to malignancy. Six primaries were esophageal, three bronchial and one ovarian. One patient could not tolerate a cuffed tube. All other fistulas closed with intubation but two tubes displaced later. Seven patients managed a soft diet after intubation, but two liquids only. Median survival was 4 weeks (range, 0 to 9 weeks). Group 2 comprised three patients with large endoscopic instrumental tears. Two had definite perforations with extensive surgical emphysema. All had satisfactory contrast swallows the day after intubation and were started on semi-solid diets; median survival was 10 weeks (one still alive). Group 3 included three patients with life-threatening arterial bleeding from cancers of the gastric cardia. No further bleeding occurred in any of the three after intubation and two survived for extended periods (15 and 26 weeks). Cuffed tubes are invaluable in these desperate situations and are worth considering for symptomatic relief even when prognosis is short.
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5/16. Spontaneous oesophageal perforation as a complication of vomiting in gastroenteritis -- case report.

    This is a case report of oesophageal perforation as the complication of a commonly encountered benign disease -- gastroenteritis. A 68-year-old man first presented to the Emergency Department complaining of watery diarrhoea. He was treated and discharged. He re-attended 5 h later complaining of epigastric pain radiating to his back, vomiting bloodstained fluid and persistent watery diarrhoea. Again, he was treated and discharged. He re-attended 3 days later complaining of anorexia, cough, dyspnoea and right-sided chest pain radiating to his back, and subjective weight loss in the previous few days. Chest X-ray revealed right pleural effusion, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in the supraclavicular fossae. Computed chest tomogram and water-soluble contrast swallow confirmed 'spontaneous' oesophageal perforation. Although rare, this entity must be considered in any acutely ill patient complaining of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, especially after recent vomiting.
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6/16. Boerhaave's syndrome in children: a case report and review of the literature.

    Boerhaave's syndrome or spontaneous rupture of the esophagus is a rupture of the esophagus after vomiting. It is rare in children, and to date, 26 children have been reported. We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea after vomiting and subcutaneous emphysema. The diagnosis was confirmed with esophagoscopy. The patient was successfully treated with a repair of the rupture and a fundoplication. We review the literature on Boerhaave's syndrome in children.
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7/16. esophageal perforation with mediastinal abscess in child abuse.

    A case of mediastinitis and mediastinal abscess due to cervical esophageal perforation in a 9/12 month old girl who was a victim of child abuse and possible sexual assault is reported. Injury to the hypopharynx or esophagus with child abuse as a possible etiology should be considered when an infant or young child presents with unexplained erythematous neck swelling, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum and/or wide mediastinum.
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8/16. Pharyngoesophageal intubation injuries: three case reports.

    The hypopharynx and cervical esophagus are particularly vulnerable to intubation trauma. Contributing factors include hasty intubation by inexperienced personnel; the use of curved, beveled endotracheal tubes containing stylets; malpositioning of the head, and the application of cricoid pressure. Iatrogenic pharyngoesophageal perforations may go unsuspected until characteristic signs and symptoms are recognized. These include cervical pain, fever, dysphagia, leukocytosis, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumomediastinum. We present three cases that illustrate important points in recognizing, evaluating, and treating pharyngoesophageal perforations. The third case presents a chronic cervical esophageal perforation with secondary pseudodiverticulum, requiring resection of the pseudodiverticulum and a primary sternocleidomastoid muscle flap repair of the cervical esophageal defect. To our knowledge, this technique has not previously been reported.
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9/16. esophageal perforation at a Barrett's ulcer.

    An alcoholic man with known reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus developed fever, epigastric pain, subcutaneous crepitus, and leukocytosis from an esophageal perforation at a Barrett's ulcer. Possible risk factors for perforation in this patient included alcoholism, severe gastroesophageal reflux, corticosteroid therapy, noncompliance with antacid and H2 blocker therapy, and the presence of acid-secreting parietal cells in the Barrett's epithelium. Five cases of this complication have previously been reported in a review of the literature, which included 536 cases of Barrett's esophagus or esophageal perforation. This entity may present with a clinical triad of a patient (a) in acute distress with fever and epigastric or noncardiac chest pain and without signs of peritonitis, (b) with symptoms of or known gastroesophageal reflux, and (c) with chest examination revealing subcutaneous crepitus, or chest roentgenogram revealing subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, or hydropneumothorax.
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keywords = emphysema
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10/16. Conservative therapy for missed esophageal perforation after blunt trauma.

    An 80-year-old man was treated, non-operatively, for a distal esophageal perforation, diagnosed nine days after blunt thoracic trauma. Emergency department diagnosis was impeded by absence of mediastinal air; right chest-wall emphysema was thought to result from associated rib fractures. Conservative therapy consisting of nasogastric suction, intravenous antibiotics, right-chest tube drainage of a large communicating empyema cavity, temporary nasotracheal intubation with ventilatory support, total parenteral nutrition, and, finally, nasoduodenal intubation for elemental feeding were employed. This mode of therapy may be best in comparable elderly patients with esophageal perforation that is overlooked during the initial 24 hours after injury. Possibly, routine barium swallow in all patients with chest-wall emphysema and rib fractures would circumvent missed esophageal rupture after blunt trauma.
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