Cases reported "Esophageal Stenosis"

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1/33. Squamous cell papillomatosis of esophagus following placement of a self-expanding metal stent.

    The esophageal self-expanding metal stent has gained widespread acceptance for the management of tracheoesophageal fistulas and the palliative management of malignant esophageal strictures. The complications associated with its use can be classified as either immediate or delayed. The most frequent delayed complications include tumor ingrowth, stent migration, reflux of gastric contents, bleeding, and perforation. This case report illustrates an otherwise unrecognized delayed complication of a self-expanding metal stent. Near complete ingrowth of the stent by squamous mucosal hyperplasia occurred within six weeks of the metal stent's placement. This finding supports the hypothesis that mucosal injury and regeneration underlies the etiology of esophageal squamous cell papilloma formation.
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2/33. tracheoesophageal fistula caused by a self-expanding esophageal stent.

    A patient is presented who had previously undergone an esophagectomy for an adenocarcinoma of distal esophagus. He experienced repeated strictures at the esophagogastric anastomosis at 22 cm. After multiple dilatations, a self-expanding metal stent was placed. Four months later the upper edge of the stent eroded through the esophagus into the trachea, forming a tracheoesophageal fistula. Muscle flap repair was successful.
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3/33. Application of self-expanding metallic stents to malignant stricture following mechanically stapled esophagojejunostomy: report of two cases.

    Several types of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) were placed in two patients suffering from severe malignant stricture at the site of a mechanically stapled esophagojejunostomy used for the treatment of recurrent gastric cancer. Following modified Gianturco stent placement with limited success in one of the patients, an additional Ultraflex stent (boston Scientific Co., boston, USA) failed to expand satisfactorily at the outlet of the second stent. In the other patient, since the proximal end of an additional covered Ultraflex stent (boston Scientific Co.) inserted through the first one failed to expand satisfactorily at the level of severe stenosis because of the extreme rigidity caused by the mechanical staples, a spiral Z-stent was inserted to dilate it. The cases reported here raise some problems associated with the treatment of severely malignant stricture accompanied by extreme rigidity following mechanically stapled esophagojejunostomy with SEMS.
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4/33. Use of esophagectomy to treat recurrent hyperplastic tissue obstruction caused by multiple metallic stent insertion for corrosive stricture.

    We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who received repeated metallic stent insertion for corrosive esophageal injury. She underwent esophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction about 3 years after injury because both stents were occluded in turn by overgrowth of granulation tissue. The gross and microscopic changes of the esophagus secondary to prolonged stent insertion are described. In the literature, no reports of similar cases have been recorded. Our limited experience revealed that using metallic stents to treat benign esophageal stricture should be handled very cautiously because of the complications which can commonly occur and are difficult to manage. Repeated stent insertion, although effective for temporarily relieving dysphagia, is ineffective in the long run and can create complications. We suggest that the feasibility of esophagectomy should be evaluated after the improvement of the general condition of the patient.
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5/33. Patient tolerance of cervical esophageal metallic stents.

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate that proximal esophageal stenoses and tracheoesophageal fistulas can be adequately palliated with use of metallic stents without significant foreign-body sensation. MATERIALS AND methods: Between June 1994 and March 1999, 22 patients with lesions within 3 cm of the cricopharyngeus were treated by placement of metallic stents. The series was reviewed retrospectively. Twenty patients had surgically unresectable malignant lesions, two patients had benign disease. Ten patients had associated tracheoesophageal fistulas. In all, the upper limit of the stent was between C5 vertebral body inferior endplate and the T2 vertebral body superior endplate. The case-notes were reviewed until patient death (range, 6-198 days), or to date in the two surviving patients with benign disease. RESULTS: Immediate technical success was 93% (27 of 29). Dysphagia scores improved from a median of 3 to 2 after stent placement. Eighteen of 22 (82%) patients reported no foreign-body sensation. There have been no cases of proximal migration, periprocedural perforation, or deaths. The two patients with benign disease experienced significant complications. CONCLUSION: Lesions in proximity to the cricopharyngeus can be successfully palliated without significant foreign-body sensation in the majority of patients with use of metallic stents. The authors urge caution in placing stents in patients with benign disease.
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6/33. Are self-expanding metal mesh stents useful in the treatment of benign esophageal stenoses and fistulas? An experience of four cases.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the long-term results of treating benign esophageal fistula and stenosis using self-expanding metal stents. methods: We treated four patients using covered mesh or coiled stents. We removed the stents electively in two patients (one endoscopically and one during planned partial esophagectomy) and unexpectedly in one patient who developed bleeding. One stent migrated and required laparotomy for removal. RESULTS: Placement of self-expanding metal stents successfully sealed the benign fistula in two patients and reestablished swallowing in two other patients with complicated achalasia. Two patients were swallowing normally on long-term follow-up, one died of the underlying disease, and one required gastrostomy. CONCLUSION: Temporary use of self-expanding metal stents as a feasible option for treating benign esophageal stenosis and fistula in patients who have failed other conventional treatments.
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7/33. Endoscopic clipping of perforation following pneumatic dilation of esophagojejunal anastomotic strictures.

    Two patients with small perforations occurring after endoscopic balloon dilation of esophagojejunal anastomotic strictures were treated conservatively using metal clips. Closure of the perforation was achieved in both cases, using one and two clips in a single session. There was no procedure-related morbidity and no patient developed complications. patients were discharged from hospital on days 4 and 5, respectively. In patients with esophagojejunal anastomotic strictures, endoscopic treatment of postdilation perforation by metal clips is safe and effective.
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8/33. Endoscopic retrieval of a broken and migrated esophageal metal stent.

    In patients with inoperable malignant tumors of the esophagus or cardia, self-expanding metal stents are increasingly used to improve dysphagia. Usually, they are not difficult to place and, as compared to conventional plastic stents, complications such as stent migration or perforation, seem to occur less frequently. This is a report on a young patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the cardia, who was treated with a self expanding metal stent after endoscopic dilatation of a tumor stenosis in the distal esophagus. Immediately after the procedure, he was able to eat and gained weight. Within 6 weeks and while on continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil, the patient complained about recurrent severe dysphagia. Plain x-ray demonstrated a broken and migrated stent, the 2 parts of which were seen in the stomach and the duodenum. The stent could be extracted endoscopically without any complication, but the procedure was difficult and lasted 4 h, as the stent broke 2 more times during retrieval.
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9/33. Recurrent peptic stenosis of the esophagus: treatment with a self-expanding metallic stent.

    A 12-year-old neurologically impaired boy with recurrent peptic stenosis of the esophagus was treated successfully with use of a self-expanding metallic stent that remained for 3 months.
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10/33. Expandable metallic stents should not be used in the treatment of benign esophageal strictures.

    Expandable metallic stents have become popular in recent years for the treatment of esophageal strictures. While they are undoubtedly of great value in the palliation of malignant strictures and tracheo-esophageal fistulas, there is concern over their use for the treatment of benign diseases. We report three cases, in which such problems were seen following stent insertion for benign esophageal strictures. All three patients developed further strictures above the stents, one was complicated by a tracheo-esophageal fistula and two stents (in one patient) migrated distally into the stomach. Two of the patients underwent subsequent esophageal surgery. In both cases, this proved extremely difficult and hazardous because of the intense fibrotic reaction induced by the stents. Expandable mesh stents should not be used for the treatment of benign esophageal strictures without careful consideration of the potential problems, which can include rendering the problem inoperable.
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