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1/53. Polypoid metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the esophagus occurring after endoscopic variceal band ligation.

    This report describes a rare case of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting as a polypoid mass in the lower esophagus after endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL). A 56-year-old man underwent EVL for variceal bleeding in September 1993. He presented with dysphagia and tarry stool in December 1993. An endoscopic examination revealed a semipedunculated polypoid mass at the lower part of the esophagus, where EVL had been performed 3 months previously. The histologic examination at autopsy revealed that the polypoid mass consisted of metastatic HCC that had spread via the retrograde portal flow.
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2/53. The treatment of portal hypertension by videolaparoscopy in situs inversus totalis.

    A rare case of a 32-year-old male with situs inversus totalis viscerum admitted to hospital for hematemesis owing to portal hypertension of Laennec cirrhosis was treated for the first time by videolaparoscopic surgery. situs inversus diagnosis was confirmed by thoracic radiography, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, abdominal echography and computed tomography. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed esophageal varices and large varices in the fundus of the stomach. A successful operation (azygo-portal disconnection, splenic artery ligation without splenectomy; transesophageal suturing of esophageal varices without opening the esophagus and cholecystectomy), was performed by videolaparoscopy. The uneventful postoperative evolution (4-day hospitalization) reinforces the viability of the videolaparoscopic approach and the possibility of the application of this procedure even to situs inversus totalis organorum.
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3/53. Laparoscopic Sugiura procedure for conditioning of the blood stream through TIPSS in cirrhotic patient. Initial experience.

    The Sugiura procedure or the proximal gastric devascularisation was formerly the method of choice for esophageal varicose treatment in some patients. The frequency of this operation decreased stenting after the introduction of the transjugular portosystemic shunt into clinical practice. However this method performed laparoscopically could be useful as a complementary procedure when the blood stream through the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt is low and an esophageal rebleeding occurs. A 40-year old patient with hepatic cirrhosis and child stage "B" was admitted to our clinic due to recurrent esophageal varicose bleeding. He underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt implantation 27 months before the admission and the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt became occluded 3 times since implantation and was repeatedly revised. After admission a color Doppler of the stent was performed. The blood stream was 15 cm/s. The laparoscopic Sugiura procedure was performed after conditioning of the general status of the patient. Five ports were introduced 5 cm above the umbilicus, under the xiphoid, the right and left hypochondrium as well as the left mesogastrium. The dilated veins between the gastric coronary vein and esophagus and the short gastric veins on the great curvature were interrupted by means of an ultrasonic scalpel. The hiatus esophagus was opened, the esophagus was prepared up to the first pulmonal vein and the dilated esophageal veins were occluded with stitch ligatures. The operation was completed with Toupet partial fundoplication. The patient was followed 6 months after the surgery. No rebleeding occurred in this time period. Immediately after surgery the blood flow increased up to 97 cm/s; at 3 and 6 months follow-up the intrahepatic shunt remained open with 82 and 80 cm/s blood flow respectively. Laparoscopic Sugiura procedure performed as a complementary surgery after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt implantation increased blood perfusion through the intrahepatal constructed shunt and prevented its occlusion. However this initial experience has to be confirmed with a larger number of patients.
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4/53. Idiopathic submucosal hematoma of esophagus complicated by dissecting aneurysm, followed-up endoscopically during conservative treatment.

    Submucosal hematoma of the esophagus is encountered as a rare complication of endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices, but is seen more often with the increasing frequency of endoscopic applications. Idiopathic submucosal hematoma is a rarer event and in most cases sudden intense vomiting has been postulated as its cause. We report here the case of such a patient whose condition was complicated by a dissecting aneurysm. During conservative treatment, careful follow-up was required to differentiate the submucosal hematoma from an aorto-esophageal fistula.
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5/53. Esophageal cancer after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices.

    We reported two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus following endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for esophageal varices. Both patients were cigarette smokers and had a long history of alcohol abuse. HBsAg and Anti-HCV were negative, and Anti-HBs was positive in one of the patients. They were diagnosed as alcoholic cirrhosis with esophageal varices and received EIS treatment. Sotradecol was utilized as the sclerosant with a mean total volume of around 30 ml. patients developed dysphagia at 5 and 48 months following EIS, respectively. Endoscopic examination showed stenosis and ulcerative mass at the lower portion of the esophagus. biopsy revealed well- to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. We conclude that endoscopic follow-up is essential and carcinoma of the esophagus should be included in the differential diagnosis for esophageal ulceration and dysphagia following EIS, particularly in those patients with risk factors for developing esophageal carcinoma.
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6/53. Multiple mucosal bridges in the oesophagus after sclerotherapy for varices.

    An oesophageal mucosal bridge can occur due to acquired causes and also due to congenital anomalies. A patient with mucosal bridge of the distal oesophagus following sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol is reported.
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7/53. A case of Castleman's disease with "downhill" varices in the absence of superior vena cava obstruction.

    Downhill esophageal varices", classically defined as those that develop in the upper region of the esophagus, are less common than the "uphill" type, which is usually produced by portal hypertension. Various causes of downhill varices have been reported, but mediastinal tumor is the most common responsible lesion. Castleman's disease, or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare pathological process of unknown etiology that usually develops in the mediastinum. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose large esophageal varices were detected incidentally. The cause was a mediastinal mass which was diagnosed as Castleman's disease on histopathological examination of a surgical specimen. This patient's varices most likely formed as a result of copious blood drainage from the tumor into the esophageal veins. Evidence for this was the lack of the classic downhill pattern, the absence of superior vena cava obstruction, and the fact that the varices resolved after the tumor was removed. It is our opinion that this type of varices should be renamed, and we suggest that "overflow varices" would be an appropriate term.
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8/53. gastrectomy in combination with a distal splenorenal shunt in a patient with gastric cancer and portal hypertension: report of a case.

    We describe the case of a patient with gastric cancer complicated by portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. endoscopy showed esophageal varices in the lower third of the esophagus and a superficially depressed lesion in the middle third of the stomach, while a biopsy suggested signet-ring cell carcinoma. Laboratory data showed pancytopenia, the indocyanine green fraction after 15 min was 29%, and the symptoms corresponded to the child B criteria. A preoperative arteriogram revealed a remarkably dilated left gastric vein and the development of collateral pathways. We performed a distal subtotal gastrectomy with a reconstruction by the Billroth I method combined with a distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS) and a splenopancreatic disconnection (SPD). The endoscopic findings of the esophageal varices 15 months after surgery showed only a few white veins and the red color sign had disappeared. Now 7 years have passed since surgery, the risk of variceal hemorrhage has disappeared, and the patient is ambulatory and well. These results seems to be attributable to the long-term maintenance of the shunt selectivity and good portal hemodynamics. In patients with gastric cancer complicated with esophageal and/or gastric varices, it is recommended that DSRS with SPD be performed after a reconstruction using the Billroth I method.
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9/53. Variceal recurrence after endoscopic sclerotherapy associated with the perforating veins in lower esophagus independently.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The perforating veins as a lateral blood supply route for esophageal varices in lower esophagus are associated with the recurrence of esophageal varices after sclerotherapy, but not vessels at the esophagogastric junction as an ascending blood supply route. To date, however, frequency of association perforating veins alone with variceal recurrence has not been investigated. To clarify the influence of perforating veins alone on variceal recurrence after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, we studied the prevalence of variceal recurrence in patients with perforating veins detected by endoscopic ultrasonography after treatment. METHODOLOGY: Forty-two patients who underwent injection sclerotherapy and received endoscopic ultrasonography after treatment to evaluate the effect on the collaterals around the esophagus, were studied. Subjects were classified in four groups according to endosonographic findings as follows: group A: perforating veins ( ) and vessels at esophagogastric junction ( ), group B: perforating veins ( ) and vessels at esophagogastric junction (-), group C: perforating veins (-) and vessels at esophagogastric junction ( ), group D: perforating veins (-) and vessels at esophagogastric junction (-). RESULTS: Variceal recurrence was observed in 60% (6/10) of patients in group A, 64.3% (9/14) of patients in group B, 33.3% (1/3) of patients in group C, 0% (0/15) of patients in group D, respectively. The prevalence of variceal recurrence was compared between the 4 groups. No significant difference between group A or C and B was noted, and there was a significant difference between group A or B and D. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that perforating veins are highly associated with variceal recurrence after sclerotherapy even if perforating veins are independent.
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10/53. chylothorax as a complication of oesophageal sclerotherapy.

    chylothorax is an unusual complication of sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices. A patient is described in whom a massive chylous effusion followed sclerotherapy with repeated injections of 1.5% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. The thoracic duct traverses the posterior mediastinum in close proximity to the oesophagus, and may be disrupted by injections at mid oesophageal level.
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