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1/229. Pitfalls of transhepatic portal venography and therapeutic coronary vein occlusion.

    Coronary vein occlusions via transhepatic portography for bleeding esophageal varices was attempted in 24 patients. Problems occurred that either prevented the attempt or resulted in less than adequate occlusion. These included blood flow in the left gastric (coronary) vein toward the liver due to occluded or stenotic splenorenal shunts, spontaneous left gastric vein to inferior vena cava shunts, and failure of powdered Gelfoam and heat-treated autogenous clot to cause permanent occlusion. Of 89 total transhepatic portographies, 65 for diagnosis and 24 for occlusion, major complications occurred in two.
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keywords = vein
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2/229. Endoscopic management of bleeding ectopic varices with histoacryl.

    Bleeding from antral and duodenal varices is an uncommon feature in patients with portal hypertension. We report a patient with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis, who had a massive bleed from antral and duodenal varices. Bleeding was controlled with endoscopic injection of varices using histoacryl. Endoscopic treatment and the relatively uncommon occurrence of antral and duodenal varices are highlighted.
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ranking = 1.0307090587391
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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3/229. Use of adrenal vein conduit for splenorenal shunts: a case report.

    We report a case with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO), who presented with recurrent bleeding following a previous devascularization procedure and needed an emergency distal spleno-renal shunt (DSRS). Due to technical difficulty because of previous scarring, the adrenal vein was used as a conduit between the splenic vein and renal vein. The shunt's patent and the patient has been bleed-free for 2 years.
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4/229. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varix draining via the left inferior phrenic vein into the left hepatic vein.

    We encountered a patient with gastric varix draining not via the usual left suprarenal vein but via the left inferior phrenic vein joining the left hepatic vein. Transfemoral balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of the varix was performed under balloon occlusion of the left inferior phrenic vein via the left hepatic vein and retrograde injection of the sclerosing agent (5% of ethanolamine oleate) into the gastric varix. Disappearance of the gastric varix was confirmed on endoscopic examination 2 months later.
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ranking = 1.8571428571429
keywords = vein
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5/229. Intrahepatic spontaneous portosystemic venous shunt: value of color and power Doppler sonography.

    Spontaneous portosystemic venous shunts (SPVSs) within the hepatic parenchyma are rare. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported, and most of them were diagnosed by angiography. We present a case of SPVS diagnosed by color Doppler sonography in a 5-year-old boy admitted for bleeding due to rupture of esophageal varices. Conventional color and power Doppler sonography as well as CT showed a large shunt between the posterior branch of the right portal vein and the inferior vena cava. We believe that accurate diagnosis and follow-up of SPVS can be done with color Doppler sonography without resorting to angiography.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = vein
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6/229. portal vein aneurysm.

    While there have been a few references to portal vein aneurysm in the world literature, this is the first report in united states radiologic literature. During a routine evaluation for fever in one patient, an ultrasound examination suggested this unusual entity at the junction of the splenic and superior mesenteric vein. It was later confirmed by angiography. Two other patients were being investigated angiographically for gastrointestinal bleeding when portal vein aneurysms were discovered. In contrast to the central location of the first patient's aneurysm, the latter two were more distal in the portal tree. The literature is reviewed and different etiologic hypothesis discussed.
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7/229. blood supply routes of recurrent esophageal varices following endoscopic embolization.

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The blood supply routes of recurrent esophageal varices following complete endoscopic embolization (EE) are not yet known. The purpose of this study is to identify these blood supply routes by comparing endoscopic varicography and percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP). methods: Eleven cases of recurrent esophageal varices following EE are included in this study. The blood supply routes of primary and recurrent varices were analyzed by comparing the varicography obtained at the initial and repeat EE with PTPs before and after the initial EE. RESULTS: Endoscopic varicography at the time of initial EE could show the vessels of the left gastric vein (LGV) system, such as the cardiac branch of the LGV, and the cardiac venous plexus (CP) in 100% of cases, and the trunk of the LGV in 73% (8/11) of cases, whereas the posterior gastric vein was seen in only 18% (2/11) of cases. PTP performed 2 weeks after the initial EE confirmed that the routes visualized by endoscopic varicography could be obliterated in 10 of 11 cases. The blood supply routes of recurrent varices, demonstrated by varicography, were the vessels of the short gastric vein (SGV) system, such as the fundic branch of the SGV or the posterior gastric vein in 82% (9/11) of cases, and the partially reformed fine CP in 27% (3/11) of cases. Varicography revealed the remnant vessels of the LGV in only 1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The primary esophageal varices are supplied with blood mainly from the cardiac branch of the LGV through the CP. However, the blood supplies of recurrent varices following EE come from the fundic branch of the SGV or the posterior gastric vein. We conclude that three-dimensional obliteration of esophageal varices and their feeders, the LGV and SGV systems, is completed by initial and repeat EEs.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = vein
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8/229. Gastric varices with splenic vein occlusion treated by splenic arterial embolization.

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in August 1997 with enlarged gastric varices. Computed tomography (CT) showed splenic vein occlusion, gastric varices, and extra-gastric wall collateral veins. color flow images of gastric varices were clearly visualized, and the velocity in the gastric varices was 19.6 cm/s via endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS). The patient was diagnosed with gastric varices according to angiographic findings of splenic vein occlusion, and splenic arterial embolization was performed. Two weeks after the splenic arterial embolization, CT showed peripheral areas of low attenuation in the spleen, due to splenic infarction, with 70% of the spleen volume showing low attenuation. Eight months after the splenic arterial embolization, ECDUS revealed a decrease in gastric variceal color flow images, with the velocity in the gastric varices being 10.3 cm/s.
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9/229. Profuse variceal hemorrhage as a presenting feature of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a young non-icteric patient.

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma can present with a vast spectrum of rare manifestations. It usually occurs after the age of 50 years, the peak incidence being in sixth and seventh decades. We report a previously asymptomatic subject of pancreatic adenocarcinoma who presented for the first time with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. endoscopy revealed ruptured esophageal varices which were secondary to tumour-induced thrombosis of the portal vein. Besides the uncommon mode of presentation, the patient was unusual because of his young age. Further, he was non-icteric at the time of presentation and remained so throughout the clinical course despite having a large lesion in the head of the pancreas.
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ranking = 0.67824616291771
keywords = thrombosis, vein
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10/229. splenic vein occlusion secondary to tuberculous lymphadenitis at the splenic hilum: report of a case.

    We report a patient with splenic vein occlusion (SVO) secondary to tuberculosis. A 17-year-old male patient with mild epigastric pain and splenomegaly was found to have gastric varices by gastroscopy, and SVO by selective angiography. At operation, the splenic vein was occluded by hard fibrous tissue at the splenic hilum, and thus a splenectomy was performed. A microscopic examination of the tissue revealed caseous necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and Langhans-type giant cells. Although there were no other findings suggesting intestinal tuberculosis, it seemed that tuberculous lymphadenitis of the splenic hilum most likely caused the occlusion of the splenic vein. Because specific tests for tuberculosis were negative in both immunohistochemical staining for bacille Calmette-Guerin and polymerase chain reaction of dna for mycobacterium tuberculosis, the time of infection was assumed to have occurred a long time before. SVO can sometimes be seen in pancreatic diseases, but this patient with tuberculosis appears to be the first such reported case in the English literature.
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keywords = vein
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