Cases reported "Esophagitis"

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1/116. Esophagitis dissecans superficialis associated with pemphigus vulgaris.

    The extension of bullous lesions in pemphigus to the esophagus is relatively uncommon, especially in patients who appear to be in clinical remission. Very rarely, pemphigus vulgaris may affect the entire esophagus, resulting in complete sloughing of the mucous membrane. A 20-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris presented to the emergency room with acute onset of dysphagia, odynophagia, and hemoptysis. There were no cutaneous or oral findings of pemphigus on presentation, since he was being maintained on corticosteroids and azathioprine with excellent results. During initial evaluation in the emergency room, the patient was observed to vomit a cast of the mucosal lining of the esophagus. The morphologic description of such an esophageal cast is termed esophagitis dissecans superficialis. This is the third case of esophagitis dissecans superficialis in pemphigus vulgaris recorded in the medical literature.
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2/116. diagnosis of esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The esophagus is one of the most common sites of gastrointestinal involvement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with at least 30% of the patients having esophageal symptoms at some point during the course of HIV infection. Esophageal ulcers are commonly caused by infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) or may be idiopathic. The clinical presentation of the various causes of esophageal ulcers are similar; therefore, a thorough endoscopic and histological workup is imperative to make a diagnosis and, consequently, to provide appropriate therapy. The widespread use of more effective antiretroviral therapy appears to have led to a decline in gastrointestinal opportunistic disorders in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), including those involving the esophagus. Unfortunately, there are several reports of resistance of hiv-1 to multiple antiretroviral agents, and thus it is possible we will observe an increase in various opportunistic disorders again. The aim of this article is to provide a practical approach to the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic evaluation of esophageal ulcers in patients with AIDS.
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3/116. Tuberculous esophagitis.

    Roentgenographic changes in a case of tuberculosis involving the esophagus were ulceration and narrowing of the esophagus, and sinus tracts to the mediastinum. Disseminated tuberculosis was discovered only at autopsy. The diagnosis of tuberculous esophagitis in a patient with no other demonstrable tuberculous lesions is difficult, as clinical and roentgenographic findings are not specific.
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4/116. Esophageal candidoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Oral thrush and esophagitis caused by candida are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. We present the case of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed dysphagia during a hospitalization for pneumonia. signs and symptoms were consistent with candida esophagitis. Despite therapy with fluconazole, the patient's symptoms persisted. At upper endoscopy, a 1-cm, polypoid esophageal mass at 30 cm from the incisors and several other nodular lesions were observed; white plaques were noted throughout the esophagus. biopsy specimens of the mass contained hyphal forms consistent with candida species. Therapy with amphotericin b improved the patient's symptoms, and resolution of the mass was confirmed by repeat upper endoscopy. We believe this is the first case in the medical literature of a candida mass (candidoma) causing dysphagia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Candidoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or immunosuppression due to other causes.
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5/116. Multiple esophageal rings: an association with eosinophilic esophagitis: case report and review of the literature.

    Esophagitis may present endoscopically with erythema, edema, loss of vascular pattern, friability, and ulceration of the esophageal mucosa. Left untreated, chronic esophagitis may result in stricture formation. The presence of multiple concentric rings involving the entire esophagus has been cited as a chronic form of esophagitis. We present a case of an 8-yr-old boy with multiple concentric esophageal rings and histological evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis, who failed medical antireflux treatment and responded to an elimination diet.
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6/116. Synchronous herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus esophagitis.

    Infective esophagitis is a rare disease, affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Very few cases of a multiple viral infection have been reported. We present a case of combined cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis in an 81-year-old female with extracapillary sclerosing glomerulonephritis treated for five months with steroids and chemotherapy. She died of septic shock. At autopsy, erosive and ulcerative esophagitis was found in the distal half of the esophagus. Slides were stained by HE, and the immunohistochemical avidin-biotin method was used to detect HSV and CMV infection. On histological examination of the esophagus, epithelial giant cells with intranuclear viral inclusions showing HSV immunopositivity were found at the margin of the ulcerations. giant cells with intranuclear inclusions with CMV immunopositivity were also found in the mesenchymal cells obtained from the ulcer bed. Long-term immunosuppressive therapy provoked an immune deficiency, evidenced by grave leukopenia and depletion of all bone marrow elements. diagnosis of HSV and CMV esophagitis is important to evaluate the risk of hemorrhage and esophageal perforation in esophagitis.
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7/116. Esophageal ulcer caused by cytomegalovirus: resolution during combination antiretroviral therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    A 36-year-old man with a 5-year history of untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had odynophagia for 14 days. Fifteen days earlier, he had begun taking trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and combination antiretroviral therapy that included lamivudine, zidovudine, and nelfinavir. He had no history of opportunistic infection. The cd4 lymphocyte count was 67/microL and HIV-rna level was 359,396 copies/mL. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a large, well-circumscribed esophageal ulceration 31 cm from the incisors. Histopathologic examination of esophageal biopsy specimens showed cytopathic changes diagnostic of cytomegalovirus (CMV). In situ dna hybridization was positive for CMV. While combination antiretroviral therapy was continued, the esophageal symptoms resolved within 4 days of endoscopy without specific therapy for CMV. Follow-up endoscopy 4 weeks later revealed a normal-appearing esophagus, and the patient has remained symptom-free for 10 months.
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8/116. herpes simplex virus esophagitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) in the immunocompetent host. methods: The study entailed a case report and a review of relevant literature through a medline search back to 1966. All cases with documented HSVE in patients without immunosuppression were selected and their characteristics defined. RESULTS: A total of 38 cases were identified. The age range was 1-76 yr and the male/female ratio 3.2/1. Antecedent exposure to HSV disease was described in eight cases (21.1%). A prodrome of systemic manifestations preceded the onset of esophageal symptoms in nine subjects (23.6%). Manifestations included acute odynophagia (76.3%), heartburn (50%), and fever (44.7%). Concurrent oropharyngeal lesions were uncommon (n = 8, 21.1%). Endoscopically, extensive involvement was common, showing friable mucosa (84.2%), numerous ulcers (86.8%), and whitish-exudates (39.5%). The distal esophagus was most commonly affected (63.8%). Microscopic examination showed characteristic viral cytopathology in 26 (68.4%) cases. Virus was recovered from esophageal-brushes or biopsies in 23 of 24 (95.8%) patients and immunocytochemistry was positive in seven of eight (87.5%) cases. Immune status was consistent with primary HSV infection in eight (21.1%) cases. The disease was self-limiting, although esophageal perforation and upper GI bleeding were reported in one case each. CONCLUSIONS: HSVE in the immunocompetent host is a rare but distinct entity, and is significantly more common in male subjects. It represents either primary infection or reactivation, and is characterized by acute onset, systemic manifestations, and extensive erosive-ulcerative involvement of the mid-distal esophagus. Histopathological examination alone may miss the diagnosis; adding tissue-viral culture optimizes the diagnostic sensitivity. It is usually self-limiting; whether antiviral therapy is beneficial remains unknown.
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9/116. Crohn's disease of the esophagus: Three cases and a literature review.

    Three cases of esophageal Crohn's disease (CD) are described, each with dysphagia and/or odynophagia caused by esophageal ulceration. All three patients had associated ileocolitis. One patient followed for a prolonged period responded to treatment with sulfasalazine and prednisone. A computer search back to 1967 produced 72 additional cases of esophageal CD. Among these 75 patients (total), who were, on average, 34 years old, esophageal disease was the presenting disease symptom in 41 patients (55%). The diagnosis was difficult in 13 patients, in whom no distal bowel disease was detected at the time of initial esophageal presentation. The most common presentation was dysphagia associated with aphthous or deeper ulcerations (52 patients). In 11 of these patients, oral aphthous ulcerations were also present. esophageal stenosis or fistulas to surrounding structures were present in 27 patients and led to surgery in 17 patients. Most of the unfavourable outcomes were in this group of 27 patients with esophageal complications, including five deaths. Fourteen additional patients required surgery for CD of other areas. Responses of uncomplicated ulcerative disease of the esophagus tended to be favourable if the medical regimen included prednisone. Clinical patterns of esophageal CD were divided into three categories: ulcerative, stenosing and asymptomatic (acute disease in children).
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10/116. Alkaline esophagitis evaluated by endoscopic ultrasound.

    Case Report: Two patients with corrosive esophagitis caused by alkaline household agents were examined with endoscopic ultrasound using a 20-MHz probe. In the first case, endoscopic ultrasound revealed circumferentially thickened mucosa and muscularis propria, and lack of differentiation between the mucosa and submucosa. However, esophageal stricture did not develop during 3 months of follow-up, suggesting that the deep lesion may have involved a narrow section of esophagus only. In the second case, a markedly thickened mucosa was seen, resulting in no sequelae. Endoscopic ultrasound offers a more accurate evaluation of the depth of the lesions in alkaline esophagitis compared to standard endoscopy or computed tomography. longitudinal studies are needed to identify lesions at greatest risk for progression to stricture.
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