Cases reported "Exanthema"

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1/13. Acute abdomen without cutaneous signs of varicella zoster virus infection as a late complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: importance of empiric therapy with acyclovir.

    Two patients complained of severe abdominal pain as the first sign of varicella zoster virus infection about 1 year after allogeneic BMT. In case 1, eruptions, found on the face and chest on admission, became vesicular and dispersed on the third hospital day. Though acyclovir (ACV) was immediately started, he died on the fourth day. In case 2, skin rash was never observed during the clinical course. laparotomy on the third hospital day revealed many hemorrhagic spots on the liver surface and mucous membrane of the upper GI tract, indicating disseminated visceral disease. Empiric therapy with ACV was successful.
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2/13. The schnitzler syndrome. Four new cases and review of the literature.

    The schnitzler syndrome is characterized by a chronic urticarial eruption with a monoclonal IgM gammopathy. The other signs of the syndrome include intermittent elevated fever, joint and/or bone pain with radiologic evidence of osteosclerosis, palpable lymph nodes, enlarged liver and/or spleen, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and leukocytosis. The mean delay to diagnosis is more than 5 years, and this syndrome is of concern to internists and many medical specialists. patients with this syndrome are often initially considered to have lymphoma or adult-onset Still disease, which are the main differential diagnoses. However, hypocomplementic urticarial vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cryoglobulinemia, acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency, hyper IgD syndrome, chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, and Muckle-Wells syndrome should also be excluded, because diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical and biologic signs and there is no specific marker of the disease. The disease pursues a chronic course, and no remissions have yet been reported. Disabling skin rash, fever, and musculoskeletal involvement are the most frequent complications. Severe anemia of chronic disease is another serious complication. The most harmful complication, however, is evolution to an authentic lymphoplasmacytic malignancy, which occurs in at least 15% of patients. This hematologic transformation can occur more than 20 years after the first signs of the disease, thus patients deserve long-term follow-up. Treatment is symptomatic and unsatisfactory. The skin rash is unresponsive to treatment, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, antihistamines, dapsone, colchicine, and psoralens and ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy give inconstant results. fever, arthralgia, and bone pain often respond to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In some patients, these symptoms and/or the presence of severe inflammatory anemia require steroids and/or immunosuppressive treatment, which ameliorate inflammatory symptoms but do not change the course of the skin rash.
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3/13. Aleukemic leukemia cutis presenting as benign-appearing exanthema.

    Aleukemic leukemia cutis is a rare condition characterized by the infiltration of the skin by leukemic cells before their appearance in the peripheral blood or bone marrow. We report here a 62-year-old seemingly healthy patient who presented with disseminated erythematous maculae. A skin biopsy showed leukemia cutis of monocytic type. No involvement of bone marrow or peripheral blood was found. The patient developed acute monocytic leukemia 7 months later. We present this case to illustrate how leukemia cutis can masquerade as a clinically benign-appearing cutaneous eruption without leukemic changes in blood or bone marrow. To confirm the diagnosis of aleukemic leukemia cutis, immunohistochemistry of the skin lesions as well as a complete staging procedure is necessary.
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4/13. leukemia cutis in an elderly patient treated with low dose cytosine arabinoside and etoposide.

    A 78-year-old man presented with a generalized erythematous papular rash. Such skin lesions were not painful, tender or pruritic, and spread over the truncus. He was admitted to our hospital for examination of the skin lesions. Laboratory tests indicated microcytic hypochromatic anemia and thrombocytopenia, although gave a normal leukocyte count with normal differentiation. His bone marrow showed hypercellularity, with 43% peroxidase positive blasts that displayed positive immunophenotypes for CD4, CD13, CD33, CD41a, KP-1 (CD68), and HLA-DR. His skin specimen revealed infiltration in the dermis and subcutaneous fat tissue by leukemic cells that were positive for the leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD45), CD15, CD33, CD68, and HLA-DR. He was diagnosed as having M4 subtype of acute myelogeneous leukemia (AML) with leukemia cutis. After three courses of low dose cytosine arabinoside (LDAC), combined with low dose etoposide, he achieved complete remission (CR). He remained well, with no evidence of relapse nine months later. LDAC should be considered as initial treatment for such cases of leukemia cutis with poor general condition.
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5/13. early diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism syndrome by diffusion-weighted MRI (starfield pattern).

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral fat embolism syndrome is a rare, but potentially lethal, complication of long bone fractures. Neurological symptoms are variable, and the clinical diagnosis is difficult. The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate the value of diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain for early diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Case Description- A non-head-injured 18-year-old woman suffered acute mental status changes 21 hours after an uncomplicated fracture of the left tibia. MRI of the brain was performed 48 hours after injury. T2-weighted images showed multiple nonconfluent areas of high signal intensity, which, on the diffusion-weighted scans, were revealed as bright spots on a dark background ("starfield" pattern). We suggest that this indicates areas of restricted diffusion that are due to cytotoxic edema, resulting from multiple microemboli. CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity lesions in the brain on diffusion-weighted images may serve as an early-appearing and more sensitive indicator of the diagnosis of fat embolism in the clinical context of long bone injury without head trauma.
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6/13. osteogenesis imperfecta with bleeding diathesis.

    osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a disorder of type 1 collagen synthesis with varied complications in form of brittle bones, hearing loss, dental, skin, and ocular changes. osteogenesis imperfecta may have bleeding diathesis rarely due to defective vascular integrity for the same reason. Here we come across a rare case of Sillence type IB osteogenesis imperfecta with bleeding in the form of repeated epistaxis and petechial rash, which seem to have a collagenous link.
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7/13. An idiopathic skin eruption resembling a butterfly rash in a septic patient with disseminated intravascular coagulation following bone marrow transplantation.

    A 31-year-old man who underwent chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation to treat acute myeloblastic leukemia was admitted to our department complaining of high fever and hypotension. His physical examination revealed warm shock state, eruptions resembling that seen in systemic lupus erythematosus on his face and cyanosis in his fingers. We diagnosed septic shock and idiopathic skin eruption on his face. Following treatment with blood transfusion, anticoagulant, antibiotics, respirator and continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and dialysis, the patient's condition gradually improved. The eruptions on his face first observed at admission progressed with a worsening of his disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and subsided with an improvement in his DIC. A biopsy of the eruption was taken and pathological findings of the eruption revealed multiple micro-fibrin depositions of the dermis. The skin necrosis in purpura fulminans often begins in the distal extremities. But our patient developed this uncommon skin eruption on his face. patients with an idiopathic skin eruption resembling a butterfly rash in a septic patient should be considered to complicate DIC as in the present case.
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8/13. Rash and pancytopenia as initial manifestations of acute graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation.

    Acute graft-versus-host disease is mainly a complication of allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation, and rarely seen after transplantation of solid organs. We describe a 68-year-old man who developed a maculopapular eruption and fever approximately 15 days after orthotopic liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis. At day 19, the patient developed abrupt neutropenia and diarrhea. Skin biopsy was performed and the specimen revealed basal cell layer vacuolization, necrotic keratinocytes, and satellite cell necrosis. Bone-marrow aspiration performed after the patient became pancytopenic revealed aplastic marrow with scattered lymphocytes and rare megakaryocytes. A diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease was made and an immunosuppressive drug regimen was initiated. Unfortunately, the patient died after support was withdrawn because of total ablation of his bone marrow and multiorgan failure. This report describes the rare presentation of acute graft-versus-host disease after solid organ transplantation, and that skin manifestations may be an early presenting sign.
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9/13. Paraneoplastic syndrome and intrathoracic Castleman disease.

    We report two cases of intrathoracic Castleman disease presenting with paraneoplastic syndrome. Patient 1 was a 10-year-old girl with short stature. She was found to have delayed bone age, slow growth velocity, and iron-deficiency anemia, which was refractory to treatment. thrombocytosis and hypergammaglobulinemia were later detected. Chest X-ray revealed a hilar mass. Patient 2 was a 14-year-old boy who had severe cough, progressive mucocutaneous erosion, and dermatitis. Chest X-ray showed a mediastinal mass. Sections of skin biopsy showed findings consistent with pemphigus disease. In each case, the histological diagnosis of Castleman disease was made.
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10/13. Diagnostic challenge in recurrent skin rash after autologous bone marrow transplantation.

    Engraftment syndrome, autologous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation can have similar clinical presentations. Here, we describe a patient with refractory Ewing sarcoma who had recurrent skin rash after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although the rash was diagnosed as GVHD histologically, this case illustrates the diagnostic dilemma of distinguishing engraftment syndrome, autologous GVHD, or concomitant viral infection. Because therapy for these entities is different, distinguishing them is important. Establishment of diagnostic criteria and understanding of the pathophysiology of these entities may lead to better management and to improved therapy of refractory cancer.
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