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1/7. Deposition of calcified tissue around an overextended gutta-percha cone: case report.

    CASE REPORT: Root canal treatment was performed in a mandibular right second premolar with a periapical lesion and apical resorption. The root canal was prepared with K-files using the step-back technique and 3% NaOCl as an irrigant; during obturation gross overfilling of gutta-percha occurred. The tooth was permanently restored with a post and core along with a crown. Although healing of the periapical lesion occurred and the patient reported that he was symptom-free, the tooth was extracted after 4 years because of a subgingival root fracture. Following extraction the tooth was examined with SEM. The examination revealed the presence of newly formed calcified tissue at resorption sites on the root apex. This newly formed tissue extended from the surface of the root around the apex to the extruded gutta-percha cone to which it was well adapted, forming a bridge between the cone and the root.
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2/7. Bullous eruptions caused by extravasation of mannitol--a case report.

    Extravasation is one of the common complications seen with intravenous infusion. We bring forward a case of subcutaneous mannitol extravasation, which caused swelling and multiple cutaneous bullous eruptions in the hand and forearm during craniotomy. Treatment consisting of elevation of the affected extremity and application of silver sulfadiazine ointment twice daily to the injured area was successful. The possible mechanisms relevant to extravasation and its tissue damage are reviewed and discussed. Selecting proper intravenous infusion site, using pliable catheters and frequent inspection are important steps for prevention of extravasation.
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3/7. Surgical management of overfilling of the root canal: a case report.

    Overfilling of the root canal is one of the most common errors encountered in dental practice. A 40-year-old woman complained of paresthesia and swelling affecting the left side of the mandible. Panoramic radiographs revealed that the root canal was overfilled; endodontic restorative material extended as far as the mandibular angle. Several months after surgical removal of the tooth and excess filling material, the symptoms subsided.
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4/7. Post-endodontic pericoronitis.

    pericoronitis is defined as inflammation of the soft tissue around the crown of any partially erupted tooth. A case of pericoronitis with an unusual aetiology is described.
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5/7. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment.

    We experienced two cases of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by root canal medicaments, which were successfully relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment. In the first case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of calcium hydroxide into the mandibular canal through the root canals of the mandibular left second molar tooth. In the second case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of paraformaldehyde through the root canals of the mandibular right second molar tooth. The paresthesia was relieved in both cases by repetitive microscopic endodontic irrigation using physiological saline solution in combination with oral vitamin B12 and adenosine triphosphate.
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6/7. Localized bullous eruptions caused by extravasation of commonly used intravenous infusion fluids.

    Extravasation is a frequent complication associated with intravenous infusions. Two case histories are reported in which blister formation is one of the most striking features after the accident. The infusion fluids are no vesicants but commonly used intravenous infusion fluids. The factors on which the eventual extent of tissue damage depends are discussed, as are the mechanisms by which these factors cause damage on a cellular level. Experienced personnel, selecting the right location for the infusion, flexible catheters and frequent inspection of the infusion are important factors to prevent extravasation. If extravasation is suspected, the infusion should be stopped, aspiration should be performed, the extremity involved should be elevated, wet compresses should be applied and exact documentation of the accident is required.
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keywords = eruption
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7/7. Internal resorption occurring after accidental extrusion of iodoform paste into the mandibular canal.

    The precise etiology of internal resorption is unknown but it is generally believed that triggering factors are infection and persistent chronic pulpitis. A case is presented with internal resorption, which developed subsequent to extrusion of iodoform paste from the adjacent tooth into the mandibular canal. According to clinical and radiographic examinations made after 7 years, the tooth was clinically asymptomatic, vital and the internal resorption was arrested without treatment.
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