Cases reported "Eye Abnormalities"

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1/328. Ocular malformations, moyamoya disease, and midline cranial defects: a distinct syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a 10-year-old girl with developmental anomalies of both optic disks, a chorioretinal coloboma, sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele, and moyamoya disease. methods: A full ophthalmologic examination, cranial magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography, and cerebral angiography were performed. RESULTS: The patient had a morning glory disk anomaly and microphthalmos of the right eye and optic nerve hypoplasia and retinochoroidal coloboma in the left eye. She had a midfacial cleft and an episode of seizures and a stroke. magnetic resonance imaging showed a sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele. magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography demonstrated a pattern consistent with moyamoya disease. CONCLUSIONS: This patient had a distinct syndrome of optic disk, retinochoroidal, and carotid circulation anomalies with midline cranial defects. The recognition and treatment of the vascular abnormalities and cranial defects may prevent complications such as strokes that may occur during or after general anesthesia.
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2/328. Ophthalmic findings in GAPO syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of GAPO syndrome are growth retardation (G), alopecia (A), pseudoanodontia (P), and optic atrophy (O). CASES: This syndrome has been described in 21 patients from 16 different families. Four cases are from turkey and have been presented by Sayli and Gul. The purpose of our study is to document the cases from turkey and discuss the ophthalmological and neuro-ophthalmolgical findings of these and other reported GAPO cases. OBSERVATIONS: All patients in the literature and our 4 cases have severe growth retardation with delayed bone age in infancy, characteristic facial appearance (high and bossed forehead, midface hypoplasia), alopecia or severe hypotrichosis, and pseudoanodontia. optic atrophy was present in 1 of our cases and in 5 previous cases. glaucoma was present in 5 cases, including 2 of ours. Buphthalmia and keratopathy secondary to glaucoma were also observed. White eyelashes, seen only in our cases, may be a sign of "early senility." CONCLUSIONS: optic atrophy is not a constant finding in GAPO syndrome. glaucoma may accompany the ocular findings. This syndrome has been attributed to either ectodermal dysplasia or the accumulation of extracellular connective tissue matrix, due to an enzyme deficiency involved in its metabolism. Current studies show that an elastin defect and secondary changes in collagen may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.
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3/328. Abnormal prenatal sonographic findings in the posterior cranial fossa: a case of Joubert's syndrome.

    Joubert's syndrome is a well-documented but rare disorder characterized by a variable combination of central nervous system, respiratory, renal and eye anomalies. The most significant and constant neuropathological finding is partial or complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. The syndrome was first described by Joubert and colleagues as a familial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A case of Joubert's syndrome is described in which second-trimester ultrasonography demonstrated abnormal findings in the fetal posterior fossa with associated renal abnormalities. However, postnatal sonography of the posterior fossa could not confirm the prenatal findings, and the diagnosis of Joubert's syndrome was only later established by computed tomography of the neonatal brain in the knowledge of the characteristic clinical picture.
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4/328. Bilateral abortive cryptophthalmos associated with oculocutaneous albinism.

    PURPOSE: To document a case of bilateral abortive cryptophthalmos associated with oculocutaneous albinism. methods: We describe a 13-year-old female patient with blond skin and hair who had anomalous face and eyes first noted at birth. RESULTS: The patient had fair hair and complexion, bilateral anomalous wedge of scalp hair, upper eyebrow and eyelid deformities, cup-shaped ears, broad based nose with depressed bridge and midline groove, iris transillumination and diffuse hypopigmentation and foveal hypoplasia in fundus examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the clinical and laboratory findings, the reported case represents tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism together with bilateral abortive cryptophthalmos. The oculocutaneous albinism can either be an entirely new criterion to the whole syndrome of cryptophthalmos, or, more probably, the condition can be due to a double affliction which is primarily related with consanguinity of the parents. The importance of ante-natal diagnosis and genetic counseling are emphasized in such cases where the two recessive genes for two different conditions coexist.
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5/328. Ocular findings in ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia syndrome.

    ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia (IFAP) are typical features of a rare neuroichthyosis termed IFAP syndrome. We demonstrate the ultrastructural findings of the eyes from a 33-year-old patient with IFAP syndrome. Clinically, eyebrows and eyelashes were absent from birth, and photophobia was noted at the age of 1 year. The globes measured 28 and 29 mm, respectively, and both eyes showed a posterior staphyloma. Histopathologically, bilateral centrally located subepithelial avascular corneal scarring with secondary corneal amyloid deposition was found. In addition to already described ocular abnormalities in IFAP syndrome we demonstrate ultrastructural anomalies of desmosomes and tonofilaments in corneal epithelium; defects of basement membrane, Bowman layer, and anchoring fibrils; secondary corneal amyloid deposition; and keratocyte degeneration. A defective tear film, recurrent atopic keratoconjunctival inflammations, or a primary anomaly of corneal epithelial adhesion are potential causes for the corneal defects. photophobia is most likely due to corneal abnormalities.
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6/328. Multiple systemic and periocular malformations associated with the fetal hydantoin syndrome.

    anticonvulsants remain necessary during pregnancy and the removal of such drugs is not recommended. However, on the available evidence, the physician may expect an increased risk of malformation including eye abnormalities as has been outlined. The abnormalities include growth deficiencies and delayed motor/mental development together with dysmorphic features, the most common of which seems to be cleft lip/cleft palate. Additionally, many of these children suffer from eye abnormalities including hypertelorism, ptosis, strabismus, epicanthal folds, and in this case abnormalities of the lacrimal apparatus.
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7/328. Anaesthesia for sturge-weber syndrome.

    A 6-month-old boy with sturge-weber syndrome was scheduled for congenital glaucoma and left buphthalmus surgery. physical examination revealed haemangioma throughout the right trigeminal nerve, congenital glaucoma, left megalocornea and bilateral buphthalmus. Examination of the eye was performed under general anaesthesia, was followed 2 days later by trabeculotomy. No premedication was given to the patient. After induction of anaesthesia with halothane, O2 and N2O muscle relaxation was achieved with atracurium and he was intubated gently. No difference was observed in vital signs during surgery. At the end of the operation he was given oxygen 100% and extubated, muscle relaxant reversal was with atropine and neostigmine. No complication was observed in the post-operative period.
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8/328. Blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome in two Mexican patients.

    The combination of lagophthalmia, ectropion of the lower eyelids, distichiasis, euryblepharon, cleft lip/palate, and oligodontia was recently named blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome. Different combinations of these signs have been found sporadically, with autosomal dominant inheritance. ectropion of the lower eyelids, lagophthalmia, and bilateral cleft lip/palate appear to be the more common manifestations. We report on two unrelated patients with bilateral cleft lip/palate and lagophthalmia. One of these two patients had familial cleft lip/palate in two generations, probably as a variable expression of an autosomal dominant gene.
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9/328. A case associated with Walker Warburg syndrome phenotype and homozygous pericentric inversion 9: coincidental finding or aetiological factor?

    We describe a rare occurrence of pericentric inversion in homologues of chromosome 9 observed in a 2-mo-old female baby with eye and brain abnormalities. Her clinical and neuroradiological features are similar to the signs of walker-warburg syndrome. We found the same inversion in heterozygous condition in all metaphases of both parents, who are related, and in two grandparents and their mother. The cytogenetic abnormality alone does not explain the phenotype in this patient, but it warrants further linkage studies with emphasis on the pericentric region of chromosome 9 in patients with walker-warburg syndrome phenotype. This family case is unique and raises suspicions about whether the pericentric region of chromosome 9 has any connection with the phenotype of Walker-Warker syndrome.
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10/328. Half nose with ipsilateral eye and ear anomalies and facial asymmetry: report of a case with cephalometric analysis and orthodontic treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: Unilateral nostril agenesis together with ipsilateral alterations of the eye, ear, and face make up a spectrum of anomalies. The aim of this study is to report a case in a Japanese girl, 14 years, 5 months of age. Cephalometric analysis is provided, and orthodontic treatment is discussed. DESIGN: Lateral and frontal cephalograms were compared to a Japanese control group. Outcome of the orthodontic treatment was evaluated by comparing cephalograms taken before and after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: The lateral cephalometric analysis showed a severely hypoplastic maxilla in both sagittal and vertical dimensions, coupled with a decreased posterior cranial base. The mandibular rami were asymmetric. The frontal cephalogram showed decreased cranial width and maxillary alveolar width, together with an increased interorbital distance. CONCLUSIONS: Serial lateral cephalograms during the orthodontic treatment from the age of 14 to 20 years demonstrated no significant maxillary growth and some mandibular growth, coupled with labial tipping of the maxillary central incisors.
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