Cases reported "Eye Diseases"

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1/308. Cataracts, bilateral macular holes, and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment induced by lightning.

    PURPOSE: To report ocular injuries, including a unilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, induced by lightning. METHOD: Case report. A 30-year-old man was injured by lightning. RESULTS: The patient developed a severe decrease in visual acuity in both eyes, an afferent pupillary defect in his left eye, bilateral cataracts, posterior vitreous detachments, macular holes, and an inferotemporal retinal detachment with an associated flap retinal tear in his left eye. CONCLUSIONS: This is a case of bilateral cataracts, posterior vitreous detachments, macular holes, and a unilateral retinal detachment associated with lightning. We postulate that the heating of the retinal surface, the concussive forces on the eye, and a sudden lateral contraction of the attached vitreous resulted in bilateral posterior vitreous detachments and a unilateral peripheral retinal break.
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2/308. siderosis bulbi resulting from an intralenticular foreign body.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of siderosis bulbi that resulted from a small intralenticular foreign body. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 36-year-old man with normal visual acuity and a peripheral intralenticular iron foreign body in the left eye was treated conservatively. Nine weeks after the injury, he had ocular signs of siderosis bulbi, with changes in the electroretinogram. A clear lens aspiration with removal of the foreign body was performed. After removal of the iron foreign body, no progression or regression of the ocular signs of siderosis bulbi has occurred, and the electroretinogram has not changed over a 2-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Even in the presence of good vision, a patient with an intralenticular ferrous foreign body should be followed closely, and the foreign body should be removed before irreversible siderosis bulbi occurs.
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3/308. Severe ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy.

    PURPOSE: To report severe ocular and orbital toxicity after administration of intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 52-year-old man with glioblastoma multiforme underwent left intracarotid administration of eto poside phosphate and carboplatin inferior to the ophthalmic artery. Within 7 hours, a nonpupillary block angle-closure glaucoma developed secondary to uveal effusion in the ipsilateral eye, which was relieved by cycloplegia. Four days later, severe orbital inflammation resulted in a visual acuity of counting fingers, proptosis, optic neuropathy, and total external ophthalmoplegia in the eye. The patient's condition improved after a lateral cantholysis and administration of high-dose intravenous corticosteroids. Two weeks later, an anterior uveitis occurred in the left eye, which responded to topical corticosteroids. During a 2-month period, the patient recovered to a visual acuity of 20/70, near normal motility, and normal intraocular pressure, and the ocular and orbital inflammation resolved. Preexisting ipsilateral chemotherapy-induced maculopathy became more pronounced. CONCLUSION: Ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy is infrequently reported.
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4/308. vitrectomy in sickling retinopathy: report of five cases.

    The unique problems encountered in sickle patients include the need to remove peripheral vitreous if perfusing sea fans-which can bleed after vitrectomy-are present at the time of surgery. However, peripheral vitrectomy is riskier than central vitrectomy alone. If visualization of the sea fans is sufficient, it is safer to close the sea fans prior to vitrectomy in order to obviate the need for peripheral vitrectomy; then, only central vitrectomy is performed. When sea fans cannot be closed prior to vitrectomy, peripheral vitreous is removed to allow early photocoagulation of the sea fans before they bleed again. Four case presentations illustrate these principles. vitrectomy relieved severe vitreous traction that complicated retinal detachment in the fifth patient, thereby eliminating the need for a tight encircling structure, which can be poorly tolerated in patients with SC hemoglobin.
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5/308. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PURPOSE: To study the spectrum of adverse ocular effects which result from maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasma infection; further, to record the long-term visual and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these 2 major causes of fetal infection. STUDY DESIGN AND patients: A series of 55 patients with congenital infection have been studied prospectively on a long-term basis. The study group included a cohort of 34 cases with congenital rubella syndrome demonstrated by virus isolation, and 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and serologic confirmation. All patients had specific disease-related ocular defects. Rubella patients were first identified during or following the last major rubella epidemic in 1963-1964, and some have been followed serially since that time. A separate study group of representative toxoplasmosis patients presented for examination and diagnosis at varying time periods between 1967 and 1991. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: This study confirms that a broad spectrum of fetal injury may result from intrauterine infection and that both persistent and delayed-onset effects may continue or occur as late as 30 years after original infection. Many factors contribute to the varied outcome of prenatal infection, the 2 most important being the presence of maternal immunity during early gestation and the stage of gestation during which fetal exposure occurs in a nonimmune mother. RUBELLA: As a criteria of inclusion, all 34 rubella patients in this study exhibited one or more ocular defects at the time of birth or in the immediate neonatal period. Cataracts were present in 29 (85%) of the 34, of which 21 (63%) were bilateral. Microphthalmia, the next most frequent defect, was present in 28 (82%) of the 34 infants and was bilateral in 22 (65%). glaucoma was recorded in 11 cases (29%) and presented either as a transient occurrence with early cloudy cornea in microphthalmic eyes (4 patients), as the infantile type with progressive buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. toxoplasmosis: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the united states, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the united states each year; the spectrum of defects is wide and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation.
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6/308. Clinical features of Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    A 21-year-old woman complained of progressive loss of visual acuity. She had also had night blindness since she was ten years old. At the eye examination, the vitreous was found to be degenerated in both eyes. The fundus findings were a large retinoschisis in the right macula, edema resembling retinoschisis in the left macula and annular degenerative changes in the midperiphery. ERG and dark adaption were abnormal. This vitreoretinal degeneration was diagnosed as Goldmann-Favre syndrome.
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keywords = visual
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7/308. Monolateral idiopathic cyst of the vitreous.

    PURPOSE: The authors describe the case of a 58-year-old female patient that came to their observation for recurrent episode of transient blurred vision due to an idiopathic monolateral vitreal cyst localised in the posterior vitreous in the left eye. methods: Patient evaluation included: best corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, vitreo-retinal biomicroscopy, ultrasound examination, ultrabiomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSIONS: The authors review the literature including the most recent reports regarding this rare condition.
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8/308. Ocular involvement in IgA-epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an autoimmune bullous disease with frequent ocular involvement, but visual loss is rare. In contrast, EBA patients with predominant IgA autoantibodies more frequently develop severe ocular involvement, which tends to be refractory to therapy. We report two patients with 'IgA-EBA' with ocular involvement. Both initially presented with a generalized bullous disease, and direct immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated IgA in the basement membrane zone of the skin, and in the conjunctiva and cornea of patient 1. On salt-split patient skin, IgA was found predominantly on the dermal side of the artificial split in both patients. Direct immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated IgA below the lamina densa in close association with the anchoring fibrils in both patients. In patient 1, who had a prolonged course of the disease, the skin disorder responded well to treatment with cyclosporin, but the ocular involvement ended in bilateral blindness despite repeated surgical treatment. In patient 2, the blister formation and scarring conjunctivitis was stopped by a combination of prednisolone and colchicine. These patients show that in subepithelial blistering diseases, early delineation of disease nosology is critical to detect subtypes with severe ocular involvement such as 'IgA-EBA'. In addition, colchicine may be a valuable alternative in the treatment of EBA with ocular involvement.
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9/308. Ocular toxicity of systemic medications: a case series.

    BACKGROUND: There are many visually threatening conditions that may result from long-term use of systemic medications. Many of these adverse side effects can be greatly reduced or prevented with close monitoring of patients. In view of current knowledge, updated clinical guidelines for appropriate monitoring of ocular toxicity from systemic medications need to be developed for the eye care practitioner. CASE review: There have been many reports of ocular toxicity from isoniazid, thioridazine, steroids, and amiodarone therapy. Clinical cases illustrating possible adverse ocular side effects are presented, which include INH-induced optic neuropathy, phenothiazine-induced retinopathy, steroid-induced glaucoma, and vortex epitheliopathy secondary to amiodarone. CONCLUSION: Optometrists should be aware of the potential for ocular side effects from systemic medications. eye care guidelines for monitoring ocular side effects from thioridazine, INH, steroids, and amiodarone use are suggested.
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keywords = visual
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10/308. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical manifestations of ocular Lyme borreliosis, while concentrating on new symptoms and findings and the phase of appearance of ophthalmologic disorders. DESIGN: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with Lyme borreliosis-associated ophthalmologic findings previously reported from the Helsinki University Central Hospital in addition to 10 new cases that have since been diagnosed. INTERVENTION/TESTING: The patients underwent medical and ophthalmologic evaluation. The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis was based on medical history, clinical ocular and systemic findings, determinations of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis, the detection of dna of B. burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction, and exclusion of other infectious and inflammatory causes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ocular complaints, presenting ophthalmologic findings, and the stage of Lyme borreliosis were recorded. RESULTS: Four patients presented with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder, five had external ocular inflammation, 10 patients had uveitis, and one had branch retinal vein occlusion. One patient developed episcleritis and one patient developed abducens palsy within 2 months of the infection incident. In the remaining 14 patients in whom the time of infection was traced, the ocular manifestations appeared in the late stage of Lyme borreliosis. Two patients with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder and one with external ocular inflammation experienced severe photophobia, whereas the main reported symptom of the patients with uveitis was decreased visual acuity. Four patients with external ocular disease and one with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder experienced severe periodic ocular or facial pain. retinal vasculitis developed in seven patients with uveitis. CONCLUSIONS: Lyme borreliosis can cause a variety of ocular manifestations, which develop mainly in the late stage of the disease. photophobia and severe periodic ocular pain can be characteristic symptoms of Lyme borreliosis. In the differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis, Lyme borreliosis should be taken into account, especially in endemic areas.
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