Cases reported "Eye Infections, Bacterial"

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1/23. listeria monocytogenes-induced endogenous endophthalmitis in an otherwise healthy individual: rapid PCR-diagnosis as the basis for effective treatment.

    PURPOSE: listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. To date 15 cases have been published in the literature. All eyes showed similar clinical features and profound visual loss mainly due to delayed diagnosis. methods: An additional case of an otherwise healthy 73 year-old male, who was referred to our hospital because of acute iridocyclitis with secondary glaucoma, is reported. Within a few days the severity of the intraocular infection increased dramatically, resulting in the clinical picture of acute endophthalmitis. RESULTS: In contrast to most published cases, early identification of the causative pathogen in the aqueous humor after anterior chamber puncture using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the initiation of a specific, systemic antibiotic medication, resulted in-complete recovery of visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is very useful for the identification of the pathogen in intraocular infections.
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ranking = 1
keywords = lyme
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2/23. The expanding clinical spectrum of ocular lyme borreliosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical manifestations of ocular Lyme borreliosis, while concentrating on new symptoms and findings and the phase of appearance of ophthalmologic disorders. DESIGN: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with Lyme borreliosis-associated ophthalmologic findings previously reported from the Helsinki University Central Hospital in addition to 10 new cases that have since been diagnosed. INTERVENTION/TESTING: The patients underwent medical and ophthalmologic evaluation. The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis was based on medical history, clinical ocular and systemic findings, determinations of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis, the detection of dna of B. burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction, and exclusion of other infectious and inflammatory causes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ocular complaints, presenting ophthalmologic findings, and the stage of Lyme borreliosis were recorded. RESULTS: Four patients presented with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder, five had external ocular inflammation, 10 patients had uveitis, and one had branch retinal vein occlusion. One patient developed episcleritis and one patient developed abducens palsy within 2 months of the infection incident. In the remaining 14 patients in whom the time of infection was traced, the ocular manifestations appeared in the late stage of Lyme borreliosis. Two patients with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder and one with external ocular inflammation experienced severe photophobia, whereas the main reported symptom of the patients with uveitis was decreased visual acuity. Four patients with external ocular disease and one with a neuro-ophthalmologic disorder experienced severe periodic ocular or facial pain. retinal vasculitis developed in seven patients with uveitis. CONCLUSIONS: Lyme borreliosis can cause a variety of ocular manifestations, which develop mainly in the late stage of the disease. photophobia and severe periodic ocular pain can be characteristic symptoms of Lyme borreliosis. In the differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis, Lyme borreliosis should be taken into account, especially in endemic areas.
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ranking = 331.39021321518
keywords = lyme borreliosis, borreliosis, lyme
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3/23. endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in eyes with small pupils managed by sector iridectomy and polypropylene suture closure.

    Two patients with small pupils developed endophthalmitis following cataract surgery during which the small pupils were managed by sector iridectomy and closed with a polypropylene suture. Prior studies have reported that implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs) with haptics made of polypropylene is associated with a higher risk of postoperative endophthalmitis than the use of IOLs with polymethylmethacrylate haptics. endophthalmitis in the two patients reported herein was managed successfully without removal of the polypropylene suture; vision returned to 20/60 in one patient and 20/30 in the other patient. iris retractors may represent a faster and safer alternative management option for small pupils than sector iridectomy closed with a polypropylene suture.
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ranking = 1
keywords = lyme
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4/23. bacillus cereus keratitis associated with contact lens wear.

    OBJECTIVE: We report the first case of contact lens-related bacillus cereus keratitis and ulcer associated with B. cereus contamination of the contact lens case. This is also the first study to investigate and establish the genetic identity of an organism isolated from the cornea and contact lens case in a patient with contact lens-associated keratitis. DESIGN: Case report. INTERVENTION AND TESTING: Conjunctival swabs and corneal scrapings from the left eye were inoculated for culture. The contact lens case was also cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by agar disk diffusion method. Initial treatment with topical ciprofloxacin and fortified tobramycin was given. Genetic analysis of the bacterial isolates was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers (ERIC; ERIC-PCR). Susceptibility of B. cereus to heat and contact lens disinfecting solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide-catalase, polyquaternium-1, and polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) was tested. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical features, culture results, and antibiotic susceptibility testing were analyzed. The ERIC-PCR amplification products were visualized in ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. Bacterial growth after exposure to heat and contact lens disinfecting solutions was assessed on blood agar plates. RESULTS: B. cereus was grown from the conjunctiva, corneal ulcer, and contact lens case. All isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin. The corneal ulcer gradually healed over the next 6 days. Results of ERIC-PCR showed that the isolates from the cornea and contact lens case were indistinguishable, thus demonstrating the source of infecting organism to be the contaminated contact lens case. Exposure to a temperature of 80 degrees C for 20 minutes and incubation with hydrogen peroxide-catalase, polyquaternium-1, and PAPB for the minimum recommended time failed to kill B. cereus. Only exposure to hydrogen peroxide for 4 hours eradicated the organism. CONCLUSIONS: B. cereus should be considered a possible etiologic agent of contact lens-associated keratitis. Heat and many types of contact lens disinfecting solutions may be ineffective in eradicating B. cereus from contaminated contact lens cases. Only prolonged exposure to hydrogen peroxide appeared to be sporicidal to B. cereus in this study.
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ranking = 1
keywords = lyme
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5/23. Ocular Whipple's disease: earlier definitive diagnosis.

    PURPOSE: Whipple's disease is a rare, chronic, and multiorgan bacterial disease that predominantly involves the gut and its lymphatic drainage in middle-aged Caucasian men but may involve the eye. It is often difficult to diagnose and treat. We report results of one more polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis-diagnosed ocular Whipple's disease (OWD) case and the care of three new patients with ocular inflammation caused by OWD. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three patients. methods: Diagnostic PCR was performed on a vitreous sample, medical records of three patients with OWD were reviewed, and a literature review (1907 to present) located 74 OWD cases. Analysis of published OWD cases to seek out factors that contribute to earlier, definitive diagnosis and treatment of OWD is made. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Response of ocular inflammation and vision to treatment. RESULTS: One of 3 new and 4 of 74 published OWD cases reviewed were diagnosed with PCR on vitreous samples and subsequently successfully treated with antibiotics without devastating central nervous system (CNS) sequelae. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic PCR on vitreous samples and recognition of key presenting symptoms in patients with OWD allows earlier definitive diagnosis, when the disease may be more amenable to antibiotic treatment, compared with "late" CNS Whipple's disease in the cases reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = lyme
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6/23. Massive mycobacterial choroiditis during highly active antiretroviral therapy: another immune-recovery uveitis?

    PURPOSE: To describe the ocular presentation of disseminated mycobacterial disease occurring during immune-recovery in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). STUDY DESIGN: Case report and literature review. PARTICIPANTS: A 41-year-old AIDS patient with a prior diagnosis of cytomegalovirus retinitis. methods: The patient developed progressive, bilateral multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis 2 months after beginning and responding to highly active antiretroviral therapy. His left eye became blind and painful and was enucleated. Pathologic examination revealed massive choroiditis with well-formed, discrete granulomas and multiple intracellular and extracellular acid-fast organisms within the choroidal granulomas. culture and polymerase chain reaction of vitreous specimens revealed mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). RESULTS: Empiric, and later sensitivity-guided, local and systemic antibiotic therapy was used to treat the remaining right eye, but it continued to deteriorate. Despite medical therapy, three vitrectomies and repeated intravitreal injections of amikacin, a total retinal detachment ensued. One week after the third vitrectomy, the patient died from mesenteric artery thrombosis in the setting of disseminated mycobacterial disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of ocular inflammation as the presenting finding in the recently recognized syndrome of immune-recovery MAC disease. Pathogenesis of this entity is related to an enhanced immune response to a prior, subclinical, disseminated infection. The formation of discrete granulomas, normally absent in MAC infections in AIDS, reflects this mechanism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = lyme
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7/23. A case of cat scratch disease neuroretinitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.

    BACKGROUND: Cat scratch disease neuroretinitis is caused by infection by bartonella henselae. To demonstrate B. henselae infection, serologic examination is commonly used, but sometimes serologic examination is not adequate for correct diagnosis. Here we present a case of cat scratch disease neuroretinitis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in addition to serologic examination. CASE: A 55-year-old woman, presenting with headache and high fever, had noticed visual disturbance. The best-corrected visual acuity in her right eye was 0.01. meningitis, optic neuritis and retinitis were observed and she was treated with oral prednisolone. After repeated questioning, the patient remembered being scratched by a cat. Systemic examination focusing on B. henselae infection was conducted and B. henselae-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G, but not IgM, was detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. To confirm B. henselae infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using cerebrospinal fluid was performed and the presence of B. henselae-specific dna was demonstrated. From these results, we diagnosed cat scratch disease neuroretinitis and treated the patient with minocycline hydrochloride together with prednisolone. Following this treatment regimen, the patient's condition improved, and the best-corrected visual acuity in her right eye increased to 0.6 five months after the onset.CONCLUSION: The PCR technique is useful to correctly diagnose cat scratch disease neuroretinitis, if patients exhibit marginal data on B. henselae-specific antibody titer.
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ranking = 6
keywords = lyme
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8/23. Nontuberculous mycobacterial cutaneous infection confirmed by biochemical tests, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of hsp65 gene.

    We report a woman in whom a slow-growing scotochromogenic strain of Mycobacterium was cultured from skin lesions. According to its phenotypic and biochemical characteristics we could predict only that it might be M. szulgai, M. scrofulaceum or M. gordonae. polymerase chain reaction amplification of the hsp65 gene and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on the isolated strain showed that its restriction pattern differed from both M. scrofulaceum and other scotochromogenic species. Ninety-nine per cent similarity was detected between the isolated strain and M. gordonae by sequencing of the hsp65 gene. This result suggests that the isolated strain may be either a slow-growing scotochromogenic Mycobacterium most resembling M. gordonae or a novel mycobacterial species.
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ranking = 5
keywords = lyme
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9/23. polymerase chain reaction detection of neisseria meningitidis in the intraocular fluid of a patient with endogenous endophthalmitis but without associated meningitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a patient with neisseria meningitidis endophthalmitis without associated meningitis with full visual recovery, with early detection of the microorganism using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case report. PARTICIPANTS: One patient with endogenous endophthalmitis. methods: polymerase chain reaction analysis and culture of the intraocular fluid sample. polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed with a universal (16S rRNA) primer set to detect bacterial dna, and subsequently a specific probe was used to detect Neisseria species dna. RESULTS: The 16S rRNA primers detected bacterial dna, the specific probe detected Neisseria species dna, and culture was positive for neisseria meningitidis serotype C. CONCLUSIONS: A universal bacterial PCR can be very helpful for the diagnosis of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis at an early stage of the disease.
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ranking = 7
keywords = lyme
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10/23. aeromonas caviae keratitis associated with contact lens wear.

    OBJECTIVE: We report the first case of bilateral contact lens-related aeromonas caviae keratitis associated with A. caviae contamination of the contact lens case. The presence of virulence factors produced by Aeromonas species was also investigated. DESIGN: Case report. INTERVENTION AND TESTING: Conjunctival swabs and corneal scrapings from both eyes were inoculated for culture. The contact lens case was also cultured. The isolate was analyzed for the presence of virulence properties, such as gelatinase and protease production. The presence of virulence genes, such as the cytolytic enterotoxin (AHCYTOEN) and type IV Aeromonas pilus (tap) genes, was investigated using polymerase chain reaction. The susceptibility of A. caviae to 6 commercial contact lens disinfecting solutions was tested. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: culture results, protease activity, and gelatinase production were analyzed. polymerase chain reaction amplification products were visualized in ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. Bacterial growth after exposure to contact lens disinfecting solutions was assessed. RESULTS: aeromonas caviae was grown bilaterally from the conjunctiva, cornea, and contact lens case. The organism showed protease and gelatinase production. polymerase chain reaction amplification revealed that the A. caviae strain contained the AHCYTOEN and tap virulence genes. Incubation for the minimum recommended time with all tested disinfecting solutions was effective in killing A. caviae. CONCLUSIONS: aeromonas caviae should be considered a possible etiologic agent of contact lens-associated keratitis. The presence of virulence factors may be important in determining corneal infection. Commercial contact lens disinfecting solutions, along with proper lens case hygiene, may be effective in preventing A. caviae keratitis in soft contact lens wearers.
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ranking = 3
keywords = lyme
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