Cases reported "Eye Infections, Fungal"

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11/386. The development of choroidal neovascularization in pregnancy.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible association between the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and pregnancy. methods: A retrospective review was performed of the clinical records of three patients who were pregnant at the time a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) was diagnosed. The clinical presentations and treatment of the CNVM occurring in association with the pregnancies are described. RESULTS: Each patient had a decrease in visual acuity during her pregnancy: one in the first trimester, one in the second trimester, and one in the third trimester. Two patients were diagnosed with CNV related to presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) and one with an idiopathic CNVM. The two-patients with POHS showed progression of CNV after childbirth. All patients received laser photocoagulation directly to the site of the CNV. The two patients with ocular histoplasmosis experienced recurrence after treatment; one received further photocoagulation treatment, and the other underwent vitrectomy with removal of the CNVM. CONCLUSIONS: pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period may be associated with development or recurrence of CNV in POHS or idiopathic cases. This may be related to hormonal changes during pregnancy, or the cases described may reflect only a coincidental association. This report discusses possible causal factors and mechanisms. ( info)

12/386. Treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis combined with fungal infection with polyhexamethylene biguanide.

    From July 1996 to March 1997, three cases of acanthamoeba keratitis combined with fungal infection were diagnosed and treated at our ophthalmic department. Specimens from all of these cases were obtained by corneal scraping, keratectomy and anterior chamber paracentesis. The diagnosis was confirmed by either the results of smear test or pathology reports. All of these patients received aggressive treatment with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02%, fluconazole, and anegyn eye drops. After the infection had been controlled without extension, therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed on all of these patients despite the existence of infiltration beyond the edge of the graft. Postoperatively, eye drops were tapered gradually, and treatment was continued for 1 to 2 months. All three cases achieved good results and there was no recurrence of infection. Two cases had visual acuity of 20/100 and 20/20, while the other one perceived hand movement only due to later graft rejection. These cases suggest that early diagnosis and immediate use of PHMB and anti-fungal agents are effective in the treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis combined with fungal infection. ( info)

13/386. Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis associated with scleral melting and staphyloma formation: diagnosis and management.

    PURPOSE: Although conjunctival rhinosporidiosis is endemic in india, associated scleral melting and staphyloma formation are quite rare. We report clinical features and management in three patients with this unusual presentation. methods: Retrospective review of case records of three patients with conjunctival rhinosporidiosis. RESULTS: infection occurred in young, healthy adults and was localized to the forniceal conjunctiva in all patients. The affected conjunctiva had numerous grey-white spherules, but a polyp-like lesion was not present in any patient. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and examination of scrapings from the involved conjunctiva. Treatment was surgical, with excision of infected conjunctival tissues and staphyloma repair with homologous sclera or autogenous periosteum. Failure to recognize the conjunctival pathology in one patient resulted in recurrence of the staphyloma. CONCLUSION: Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis can be associated with scleral staphyloma in young, healthy, adults. Differentiating this entity from idiopathic scleral ectasia requires knowledge of the clinical features of conjunctival rhinosporidiosis and a high index of clinical suspicion. ( info)

14/386. Diagnosis and management of allergic fungal sinusitis with orbital involvement.

    PURPOSE: Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a noninvasive disease characterized by recurrent sinusitis. This condition is commonly treated with surgical debridement and several months of systemic corticosteroids. The treatment of AFS is examined in this study. methods: A retrospective case series of three patients with AFS. RESULTS: All three patients were treated with surgical debridement and less than one month of systemic corticosteroids. The patients then were treated with intranasal corticosteroids and monitored closely. Antifungal therapy was not used. All three patients remained disease-free during follow-up ranging from 12 months to 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical debridement and systemic corticosteroids for less than four weeks followed by intranasal corticosteroids may provide long-term control of AFS. Additional study is recommended to examine further the optimal treatment for AFS. ( info)

15/386. Phototherapeutic keratectomy of a corneal scar due to presumed infection after photorefractive keratectomy.

    This case involves a 25-year-old patient who suffered from corneal ulceration several days after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). A central scar developed, resulting in discomfort and reduction in visual acuity. Four months later, the scar was treated by phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) (25 microns depth, 5 mm ablation zone). Some scar tissue was left, but it cleared slowly and steadily over the next few years. The induced hyperopia decreased from 5.00 to 1.37 diopters spherical equivalent within 28 months postoperatively. Best corrected visual acuity increased from 20/60 preoperatively to 20/20 at 28 months postoperatively. Surgeons can encourage patients with postinfectious scars after PRK to try at least 1 PTK treatment. ( info)

16/386. survival after rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    OBJECTIVE: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is usually associated with a poor prognosis and is almost exclusively seen in immunocompromised patients. We report the third documented case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans (a new genus of the family Mucoraceae first isolated in 1979) in an immunocompetent individual. Orbital exenteration and radical debridement of involved adjacent structures combined with intravenous liposomal amphotericin resulted in patient survival. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHOD: A 59-year-old immunocompetent white man sustained a high-pressure water jet injury to the right inner canthus while cleaning an air conditioner filter. He later had "orbital cellulitis" develop that did not respond to antibiotics and progressed to orbital infarction. Imaging studies and biopsy results led to a diagnosis of mucormycosis. Tissue culture grew Apophysomyces elegans, a new genus of the family Mucoraceae first isolated in 1979. Orbital exenteration and radical debridement of involved adjacent structures, combined with intravenous liposomal amphotericin, resulted in patient survival. RESULTS: After orbital exenteration and debridement of involved adjacent structures along with intravenous liposomal amphotericin, our patient has remained free from relapse with long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The agent causing this case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (Apophysomyces elegans) contrasts with the three genera most commonly responsible for mucormycosis (rhizopus, Mucor, and absidia) in that infections with this agent tend to occur in warm climates, by means of traumatic inoculation, and in immunocompetent patients. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis should be considered in all patients with orbital inflammation associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies and retinal or orbital infarction, regardless of their immunologic status. A team approach to management is recommended for early, appropriate surgery and systemic antifungal agents. ( info)

17/386. A preliminary study of photodynamic therapy using verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia, ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, and idiopathic causes.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term safety and the effects on visual acuity and fluorescein angiography of single or multiple sessions of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) not related to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including pathologic myopia, the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, and idiopathic causes. DESIGN: A nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label, dose-escalation phase 1 and 2 clinical trial. SETTING: Four ophthalmic centers in europe and north america providing retinal care. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen patients with subfoveal CNV due to pathologic myopia, the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, angioid streaks, or idiopathic causes. methods: Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmic examinations, color photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy treatments with verteporfin. Follow-up ranged from 12 weeks for patients who were treated once to 43 weeks for patients who were treated up to 4 times. RESULTS: Verteporfin therapy was well tolerated in patients with CNV not related to AMD. No deterioration in visual acuity was observed; most patients gained at least 1 line of vision. Reduction in the size of leakage area from classic CNV was noted in all patients as early as 1 week after verteporfin therapy, with complete absence of leakage from classic CNV in almost half of the patients. Improvement in visual acuity after verteporfin therapy was greatest ( 6, 8, and 9 lines) in 3 patients with relatively poor initial visual acuity (between 20/200 and 20/800). Up to 4 treatments were found to have short-term safety even with retreatment intervals as short as 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of CNV not related to AMD with verteporfin therapy achieves short-term cessation of fluorescein leakage from CNV in a small number of patients without loss of vision. Further randomized clinical trials including a larger number of patients are under way to confirm whether verteporfin therapy is beneficial for subfoveal CNV not related to AMD. ( info)

18/386. Subretinal surgery for choroidal neovascularization in patients with high myopia.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the visual outcome in patients undergoing surgical removal of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in eyes with high myopia. methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 48 consecutive patients with high myopia (> or =6 diopters [D]) who underwent vitrectomy with surgical removal of subfoveal CNV. The patient population consisted of 2 groups. Group 1 included 23 patients with findings only of myopic degeneration, and group 2 included 25 patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome and myopia of 6 D or more. RESULTS: In group 1, the visual acuity improved by 2 or more Snellen lines in 9 eyes (39%), decreased in 8 eyes (35%), and remained unchanged in 6 (26%), with a mean follow-up of 24 months (range, 8-60 months). The preoperative visual acuity was 20/40 or better in only 1 eye (4%), but 8 (35%) achieved a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In group 2, the visual acuity improved in 16 eyes (64%), was stable in 4 (16%), and deteriorated in 5 (20%), with a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 6-44 months). Only 3 eyes (12%) had a preoperative visual acuity of 20/40 or better, but 11 (44%) achieved a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. recurrence occurred in 13 (57%) of the 23 eyes in group 1 and in 9 (36%) of the 25 eyes in group 2. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant relation between younger patient age (group 1) and absence of postoperative CNV recurrence (group 2) and an improvement of visual acuity (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical removal of CNV may provide visual benefit in selected cases of subfoveal CNV associated with high myopia. The determination of whether surgical intervention is appropriate in these cases requires a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. ( info)

19/386. Traumatic acremonium atrogriseum keratitis following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.

    A 52-year-old man underwent bilateral laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Eight months later, he sustained a penetrating corneal injury to the left eye. A dense white infiltrate, unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy, developed in the corneal stroma. Corneal biopsy and eventual penetrating keratoplasty were performed, and both specimens demonstrated fungal elements with branching, septate hyphae. culture identified the organism as acremonium atrogriseum. Histopathologic features of this organism and its differentiation from other, more common fungal organisms are discussed herein. ( info)

20/386. acremonium keratitis in a patient with herpetic neurotrophic corneal disease.

    fungi belonging to the genus acremonium Link ex Fries 1821 are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and soil saprophytes, but are infrequent pathogens in humans. These filamentous fungi (previously known as Cephalosporium) are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. As in the case of other filamentous fungi, corneal trauma with contaminated matter is the most frequent risk factor for the infection. We report in this paper a case of keratomycosis caused by Acremoniumpotronii, in a patient with a history of herpetic keratitis. Medical treatment with amphotericin b was unsuccessful and the infection eventually resolved with penetrating keratoplasty. ( info)
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