Cases reported "Eye Infections, Parasitic"

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1/17. Ocular toxocariasis: a rare presentation of a posterior pole granuloma with an associated choroidal neovascular membrane.

    BACKGROUND: Ocular toxocariasis is a rare infection caused by the nematode larvae of toxocara canis, which is commonly found in dogs. Human transmission is usually via geophagia, the ingestion of food contaminated with the toxocara eggs, or contact with infected puppies, often resulting in devastating ocular and/or systemic effects. Distribution is worldwide; however, a higher incidence is demonstrated in the united states. methods: A 17-year-old black woman sought treatment at a neighborhood health center with a report of gradual decrease in vision from her left eye over a 3-month period. Her ocular and systemic histories were unremarkable. Anterior segment evaluation revealed no signs of anterior uveitis. The posterior pole showed a 1.5 DD, round, raised, white, subretinal lesion adjacent to the fovea with an overlying serous retinal detachment and retinal hemorrhage. RESULTS: She was referred to a retinologist who performed both fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiographies. A serum toxocara ELISA test was also ordered. fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence consistent with the granuloma. The ICG demonstrated an occult choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) underlying the area of hemorrhage inferotemporal to the granuloma. CONCLUSION: This paper illustrates the case presentation and includes an extensive review of the ocular and systemic manifestations of toxocariases. A description of ICG videoangiography, therapeutic approaches, and management will also be discussed.
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2/17. South American cutaneous leishmaniasis of the eyelids: report of five cases in Rio de Janeiro State, brazil.

    PURPOSE: To describe American cutaneous leishmaniasis of the eyelids and highlight the main clinical and diagnostic features of lesions, which are rare in this location. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series methods: Leishmanin skin test, touch preparations, histopathologic analysis, and culture in appropriate media were used for clinical confirmation and parasitologic diagnosis. Positive cultures were identified by the iso-enzymes technique. All patients were treated with pentavalent antimony applied intramuscularly. RESULTS: Leishmanin skin test was positive in all five patients. touch preparations, histopathologic analysis, and culture were performed in four patients. touch preparations were positive (presence of Leishman's bodies) in two patients; histopathologic analysis showed a granulomatous infiltrate in four patients and parasite was present in two patients; culture was positive in three patients, and in two the parasite was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Therapy was effective for all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous leishmaniasis of the eyelids is uncommon in the americas. The disease may present diagnostic difficulties when appearing in nonendemic areas. The clues for diagnosis are the clinical aspect of lesions, the epidemiologic data, and a positive Leishmanin skin test. Demonstration of parasite is not always possible. Pentavalent antimonial compounds are the therapy of choice. Formerly, transmission of leishmaniasis occurred only when humans penetrated forested areas and became an incidental host. Now, eyelid lesions are part of the changing pattern in the transmission of the disease. With the increase in ecotourism, these lesions may begin to be seen in air travelers returning to other parts of the world.
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keywords = leishmaniasis, world
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3/17. Successful treatment of ocular leishmaniasis.

    PURPOSE: To report successful treatment of a case of ocular leishmaniasis with combined stibogluconate and allupurinol. METHOD: A 32-year-old physician developed a non-tender reddish chalazion like lesion in his right lower lid, associated with conjunctivitis and nodular episcleritis. biopsy of the lesion in his eyelid and conjunctiva disclosed a dense inflammatory response including histiocytes containing typical leishmania organisms. RESULT: Therapy with stibogluconate, both intralesional and intramuscular, was initiated with some improvement. However recurrence of the lesion occurred. Systemic retreatment with combined stibogluconate and allupurinol led to complete healing of the lesion. CONCLUSION: Ocular leishmaniasis is a rare and potentially blinding disorder. Combined stibogluconate and allupurinol may be an effective therapy in such cases.
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ranking = 23803.494814396
keywords = leishmaniasis
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4/17. Severe trichinellosis cured with pulse doses of glucocorticoids.

    trichinellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by a nematode trichinella spiralis. We studied a case of trichinella spiralis infection with severe eye involvement, febrile condition, generalised malaise and muscular weakness in a young female patient. Comprehensive ophthalmologic, infectologic, neurological and immunologic examinations including electro diagnostic tests and CT scan of the head were performed, but the diagnosis was confirmed only by histological examination of biopsy specimens of skeletal muscle. The patient did not respond to standard corticosteroid therapy and improved only after pulse doses of 1000 mg methylprednisolone. Although most authors recommend moderately high doses of corticosteroids in the treatment of trichinellosis, in severe cases extremely high doses might be necessary.
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5/17. optic nerve cysticercosis.

    cysticercosis of the optic nerve is an extremely rare entity and only seven cases have been reported in the world literature. A case of optic nerve cysticercosis in a 25-year-old woman is reported, along with a review of literature. The patient presented with two episodes of pain, diminution of vision and proptosis. Computed tomography and ultrasonography revealed an intraneural cyst with scolex in the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. A positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for cysticercosis further confirmed the diagnosis. Medical therapy in the form of oral albendazole and steroids resulted in complete resolution of the cyst, with few visual sequelae.
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6/17. Orbital dirofilariasis.

    dirofilariasis is a parasitic disease of domestic and wild animals that occasionally may present as zoonotic infection in humans. The microfilariae are accidentally transmitted to humans by culex and aedes mosquitoes. Ophthalmic infections with Dirofilaria are well documented all over the world, including America, europe and australia. The infection may be periorbital, subconjunctival or intraocular. In this report a case is described of orbital dirofilariasis that presented as ptosis and lid swelling. Australian ophthalmologists should consider dirofilariasis as part of the differential diagnosis of orbital swelling and inflammation.
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7/17. Concurrent cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in a kidney transplant patient.

    Although cases of leishmaniasis co-infection have been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients as well as those who have undergone organ transplants, to our knowledge, the present report is the first documented case of simultaneous cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in a transplant patient. The patient had been using immunosuppressive drugs since receiving a transplanted kidney. The first clinical signs of leishmaniasis included fever, thoracic pain, hepatosplenomegaly, leucopenia and anemia. The cutaneous disease was revealed by the presence of amastigotes in the skin biopsy. After three months, the patient presented fever with conjunctive hyperemia, intense ocular pain and low visual acuity. parasites isolated from iliac crest, aqueous humor and vitreous body were examined using a range of molecular techniques. The same strain of L. (V.) braziliensis was responsible for the different clinical manifestations. The immunosuppressive drugs probably contributed to the dissemination of Leishmania.
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ranking = 27770.743950128
keywords = leishmaniasis
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8/17. The first human case in mexico of conjunctivitis caused by the avian parasite, Philophthalmus lacrimosus.

    Species of Philophthalmus parasitize primarily the eyes of wild and domestic birds. A variety of mammals, including humans, occasionally serve as the intermediate as well as the definitive hosts for this parasite, although human cases are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of human conjunctivitis caused by an infection with Philophthalmus sp. in mexico. The patient was a 31-yr-old male who visited an ophthalmologist in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, mexico, because of a foreign-body sensation in his left eye for 2 mo. A small live parasite was found in the connective tissue of the bulbar conjunctiva and was removed surgically under local anesthesia under ophthalmoscopic observation. The parasite was identified morphologically as Philophthalmus lacrimosus Braun, 1902. This is the first case of human philophthalmosis in mexico and, to our knowledge, the first human case of P. lacrimosus infection in the world.
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9/17. Intraretinal hemorrhage associated with leishmaniasis.

    A 39-year-old man presented with sudden loss of visual acuity caused by two retinal hemorrhages with no choroidal neovascularization (confirmed by fluorescein angiography). The patient was hospitalized for malaise, progressive pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, progressive anemia, and perianal inflammation. Positive serologies were obtained for toxoplasmosis (IgG) and Leishmania (1/160). A diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis was made, and the patient was treated with pentavalent antimonials. Two months later, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25, with no residual scotoma. Indirect ophthalmoscopy showed complete resolution of the hemorrhages. This patient was an otherwise healthy immunocompetent adult who presented frank visceral leishmaniasis and retinal hemorrhages as the only ocular or systemic hemorrhagic findings, with spontaneous resolution after improvement of platelet levels. This rare cause of macular hemorrhage should be considered in areas where Leishmania is endemic.
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ranking = 23803.494814396
keywords = leishmaniasis
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10/17. Orbital myiasis: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Orbital myiasis cases are very rare worldwide. We are reporting this case caused by Hypoderma bovis because invasive parasitic larvae can cause massive destruction. CASE: An 85-year-old female patient was admitted to the Department of ophthalmology of the Dicle University School of medicine with the complaint of a wound in her right eye for over one year. Larvae had been in the same eye for one week. OBSERVATIONS: The clinical examination showed no light perception in her right eye. The eyelid was thickened and there was a necrotic lesion 3 x 4 cm in diameter, invading inferiorly into the upper side of the maxilla, superiorly to the roof of the orbita, medially to the lateral part of the nose, and laterally to the ossa zygomatica. Pathological examination of orbital tissue specimens confirmed basal cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Orbital exenteration, total maxillectomy and graft repair were conducted in the right eye. During the six-month follow-up period, orbital tomography was performed. No recurrence or metastasis was observed.
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