Cases reported "Facial Asymmetry"

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1/101. Radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap as a solution in case of noma.

    The authors describe a case of noma or Cancrum Oris, an oral gangrenous disease, features more frequently found in children from developing countries. The clinical features, its ethiopathogenesis, and its particular link with different geographic and economic areas of the world, its clinical evolution as well as surgical treatment are all discussed. Underlined is the functional and organic aspect of this disease, in particular the distortion of the face, which commonly involves the full thickness of the cheek skin and bone, mandibular ankylosis and craniofacial dismorphisms, and the modern approach in reconstructive microsurgery. The authors report a case of a patient affected by noma, with a very evident left face dismorphism, where we found a brilliant solution using a left radial forearm fasciocutaneous free flap, appropriately shaped.
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2/101. MR and CT imaging in the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Report of three cases and contribution to pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    Cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and mental retardation. These findings are due to cerebral injury that may occur early in life or in utero. The radiological features are unilateral loss of cerebral volume and associated compensatory bone alterations in the calvarium, like thickening, hyperpneumatization of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid cells and elevation of the petrous ridge. The authors describe three cases. Classical findings of the syndrome are present in variable degrees according to the extent of the brain injury. Pathogenesis is commented.
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3/101. Simultaneous maxillary and mandibular distraction osteogenesis with a semiburied device.

    Distraction osteogenesis is a technique utilizing natural healing mechanisms to generate new bone; it is commonly used to lengthen the hypoplastic mandible. Distraction of the maxilla and mandible as a unit is an obvious extension of the technique. We describe the application of a semiburied distractor to simultaneously lengthen the mandible and maxilla and level a canted occlusal plane in three cases. The indications for bimaxillary distraction are reviewed, including its advantages, disadvantages and limitations.
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4/101. Use of a miniaturized detector in facial bone scanning.

    A high resolution cadmium telluride probe was used in conjunction with standard bone imaging methods in two cases of facial asymmetry. The probe improved localization of the abnormalities and led to rational treatment.
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5/101. Simultaneous distraction osteogenesis and microsurgical reconstruction for facial asymmetry.

    Restoring facial balance in patients with severe facial asymmetry is a challenging problem for the craniofacial team. attention to bony reconstruction as well as soft-tissue contouring is required for patients with moderate to severe deformities. Traditionally, facial skeletal reconstruction was performed with osteotomies and bone grafting. More recently, distraction osteogenesis has proven to be successful in achieving bone lengthening. For select cases, distraction osteogenesis has lessened the need for major skeletal procedures and has allowed earlier surgical intervention. The reconstruction of the soft tissues in facial asymmetry has generally been performed as a second-stage procedure after skeletal reconstruction. The disadvantage of these traditional approaches is that it requires two separate major operative procedures, with the accompanying increased morbidity, hospital stay, and cost. We present a patient with hemifacial microsomia and a grade III mandibular deformity, in whom both the hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies were corrected in one surgical procedure with mandibular distraction osteogenesis and soft-tissue augmentation with a vascularized parascapular osteocutaneous flap. The technique and results at 1-year follow-up are presented.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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6/101. Treatment planning and biomechanics of distraction osteogenesis from an orthodontic perspective.

    As in traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, the orthodontist has a role in the planning and orthodontic support of patients undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function in addition to planning both the predistraction and postdistraction orthodontic care. Based on careful clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and evaluation of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, the orthodontist, in collaboration with the surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Both surgeon and orthodontist closely monitor the patient during the active distraction phase, using intermaxillary elastic traction, sometimes combined with guide planes, bite plates, and stabilization arches, to mold the newly formed bone (regenerate) while optimizing the developing occlusion. Postdistraction change caused by relapse is minimal. growth after mandibular distraction is variable and appears to be dependent on the genetic program of the native bone and the surrounding soft tissue matrix. A significant advantage of distraction osteogenesis is the gradual lengthening of the soft tissues and surrounding functional spaces. Distraction osteogenesis can be applied at an earlier age than traditional orthognathic surgery because the technique is relatively simple and bone grafts are not required for augmentation of the hypoplastic craniofacial skeleton. In this new technique, the surgeon and the orthodontist have become collaborators in a process that gradually alters the magnitude and direction of craniofacial growth.
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ranking = 3
keywords = bone
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7/101. Unilateral coronal synostosis treated by internal forehead distraction.

    A 1-year-old infant with left hemicoronal synostosis was treated by distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton using an internal distraction device. Surgery was performed through a coronal incision. The frontal bone and upper half of both orbits were first osteotomized en bloc after minimal epidural dissection of the supraorbital area and no epidural dissection around the coronal osteotomy site. The lateral one fourth of the frontal bone, including the right lateral half of the orbit, was left intact. The internal distraction device was fixed in the left temporal area. A 0.5-mm per day rate of distraction was performed up to an elongation of 17 mm after a 5-day latency period. The distraction device was removed after a consolidation period of 2 months. The results obtained were satisfactory, with symmetry of the forehead, orbit, and nose achieved without complications. The merits of this procedure are no extradural dead space after the operation (which prevents infection), shortened operative time, reduced blood loss, filling in the bone gap created by advancement with new bone, acceptable cosmesis by the parents during distraction, and no fixation device left after the second operation.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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8/101. A review of myeloproliferative disease with presentation in the head and neck region.

    The diagnosis of an essential thrombocytosis is demonstrated in this presentation of a well-looking 53 year old man who had a five-year history of increasing facial asymmetry as evidenced by deviation of his mandible to the right and malocclusion. The enlarged mandibular condyle was the first manifestation of his underlying myeloproliferative disorder. His management will be discussed. Neoplastic diseases of the multipotent haematopoietic stem cells result in four major diseases: chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML); polycythaemia vera (PV); agnogenic myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (AMM/MF); essential thrombocytosis (ET). CML: demonstrates increased production of neutrophils and marked splenomegaly. It is divided into a chronic phrase typified by hyperplasia of mature bone marrow elements and a blastic or acute phase which evolves into a proliferation of immature marrow elements and can develop into acute myelogenous leukaemia. PV: associated with increased production of all myeloid cells but dominated by increased red blood cells with splenomegaly. AMM/MF: allows the neoplastic stem cells to proliferate and lodge in multiple sites outside the bone marrow. splenomegaly and fibrosis of marrow spaces also occurs. ET: resulting in a markedly elevated platelet count in the absence of a recognizable stimulus. Treatment revolves around measures to maintain hydration, to relieve arthralgias, to prevent thrombotic episodes, and to prevent infections.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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9/101. Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia (SOD) is a rare, unilateral developmental disorder of the maxilla involving abnormal growth and maturation of the bone, lack of one or both premolars, altered primary molar structure, delayed tooth eruption, and fibrous hyperplasia of the gingiva. In this, the twenty-third reported case of SOD, the literature is reviewed, and the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data are described. Computed tomographic scans of this case showed that the involved segment of the maxilla extends mesiodistally from the permanent cuspid to the mesial portion of the first permanent molar, largely limited to the area of the missing premolars. However, the affected bone extends superiorly in the lateral wall of the maxilla to the zygoma and base of the orbit. This article is intended to serve as baseline data for a future article, describing the natural history and possible treatment of SOD, which remain undocumented.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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10/101. Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex, mental retardation, and facial deformity.

    Pneumosinus dilatans is a term used to describe enlargement of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localized bone destruction, hyperostosis, or mucous-membrane thickening. To date, many cases have been reported that involved frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary sinus. However, no case has been reported that involved all paranasal sinuses. Our case involved mastoid air cells as well as all paranasal sinuses. It is named pneumosinus dilatans multiplex by us. This is the first case to be reported in English literature that has this syndromic condition of pneumosinus dilatans multiplex, mental retardation, and facial deformity.
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ranking = 1
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