Cases reported "Facial Asymmetry"

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1/30. Intraoral craniofacial manipulation.

    This case report demonstrates how to use intraoral mechanics to correct facial planes that are not parallel, namely the eye plane, ear plane and occlusal plane. Currently, our protocol states that the cranial and occlusal planes are treated first, followed by expanding (transversely or sagittally), if necessary, the maxillary arch to accommodate the dentition. This creates the template from which the remaining treatment will be rendered, which would include, proper TMJ position, correction of mandibular facial asymmetries that result from ramus growth deficiencies, (both frontal and profile), and determining the correct posterior vertical. At this point the case is in a Class I osseous relationship with all expansion completed. The teeth are then erupted into the correct positions for the orthodontic finishing of the case.
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keywords = vertical
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2/30. Half nose with ipsilateral eye and ear anomalies and facial asymmetry: report of a case with cephalometric analysis and orthodontic treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: Unilateral nostril agenesis together with ipsilateral alterations of the eye, ear, and face make up a spectrum of anomalies. The aim of this study is to report a case in a Japanese girl, 14 years, 5 months of age. Cephalometric analysis is provided, and orthodontic treatment is discussed. DESIGN: Lateral and frontal cephalograms were compared to a Japanese control group. Outcome of the orthodontic treatment was evaluated by comparing cephalograms taken before and after orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: The lateral cephalometric analysis showed a severely hypoplastic maxilla in both sagittal and vertical dimensions, coupled with a decreased posterior cranial base. The mandibular rami were asymmetric. The frontal cephalogram showed decreased cranial width and maxillary alveolar width, together with an increased interorbital distance. CONCLUSIONS: Serial lateral cephalograms during the orthodontic treatment from the age of 14 to 20 years demonstrated no significant maxillary growth and some mandibular growth, coupled with labial tipping of the maxillary central incisors.
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keywords = vertical
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3/30. Two-year follow-up of distraction osteogenesis: its effect on mandibular ramus height in hemifacial microsomia.

    Distraction osteogenesis has been used to lengthen the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia. Questions regarding soft tissue and skeletal growth after distraction osteogenesis have not been clearly elucidated in the literature. In this case report, a 2-year follow-up of distraction osteogenesis in a 7 year old boy is documented with lateral and posterior/anterior cephalometric analysis. The analysis was performed preoperatively and at specific postsurgical periods to evaluate the facial soft tissue and skeletal growth patterns. Objective analysis of this growing patient after distraction osteogenesis clearly demonstrates that the anteroposterior elongation of the mandible is relatively stable, whereas the vertical lengthening and soft tissue effects are minimal. Critical evaluation of other patients who have undergone distraction osteogenesis is needed to determine if this was an isolated incident or the expected result in similar patients.
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keywords = vertical
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4/30. Distraction osteogenesis of the ascending ramus for mandibular hypoplasia using extraoral or intraoral devices: a report of 8 cases.

    PURPOSE: This report presents the results of distraction osteogenesis using unidirectional extraoral and intraoral devices in 8 patients with different grades of vertical mandibular ramus hypoplasia. patients AND methods: Eight patients with hypoplastic mandibles underwent unilateral lengthening of the ascending ramus using unidirectional extraoral or intraoral devices. Intraoral mandibular distraction was performed on 5 patients with deficiencies of the vertical ramus up to 24 mm. External devices were used in 3 patients with more severe hypoplasias. An intraoral osteotomy was performed, and progressive distraction at rates of 0.5 mm/12 hours was initiated after 5 days. Once the desired length was reached, the device was maintained in place for 8 to 12 weeks. Three-dimensional computed tomography scans were taken in all the patients to plan the procedure and to compare the changes postoperatively. RESULTS: Successful distraction osteogenesis was achieved in all patients. The amount of mandibular lengthening ranged from 17 to 32 mm. Complications with the external devices such as rotation of the proximal bony fragment (2 cases) and loosening of the external screws at the end of the consolidation period (1 case) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the intraoral device can be used as the method of choice for distraction osteogenesis of the ascending ramus of the mandible in patients with large deficiencies. Preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional computed tomographic scans are essential in treatment planning.
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ranking = 2
keywords = vertical
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5/30. Transmission of the dysgnathia complex from mother to daughter.

    We report the first observation of parent-to-child transmission of dysgnathia, a rare disorder characterized by severe mandibular hypoplasia or agenesis, ear anomalies, microstomia, and microglossia. Patient 1 was noted prenatally by ultrasound to have severe micrognathia and, after birth, abnormal ears with canal stenosis and non-contiguous lobules located dorsally to the rest of the pinnae, normal zygomata, severe jaw immobility and microstomia with an opening of only 4 to 5 mm, hypoplastic tongue, and cleft palate. The 21-year-old mother of patient 1 was born with severe micrognathia requiring tracheostomy, microglossia, cleft palate with filiform alveolar bands, abnormal pinnae, and decreased conductive hearing. Dysgnathia is thought to result from a defect in the development of the first branchial arch. A similar phenotype has been seen in Otx2 haplo-insufficiency and endothelin-1 homozygous null mice, suggesting that these genes contribute to branchial arch development. Our report of a long-surviving mother and her daughter with non-syndromal dysgnathia may lead to identification of the molecular basis of these findings and provide insight into the genetics of first branchial arch formation. The survival of patient 1 and patient 2 beyond the neonatal period has implications for improvements in prenatal diagnosis and counseling and for neonatal treatment of this condition.
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keywords = transmission
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6/30. The floating bone technique of the vertical ramus in hemifacial microsomia: case report.

    This article describes a case in which distraction osteogenesis of the vertical ramus of the mandible was used for a young woman with hemifacial microsomia. Failure of distraction occurred because of the wrong vector of distraction. The floating bone technique was applied to the vertical ramus and was used to correct the malocclusion and to recover the height of the vertical ramus. Complete skeletal correction of the asymmetry was obtained, with excellent esthetic results. The case shows that the floating bone technique is a valid method to help the surgeon in the management of malocclusion after distraction and also in cases of failure of distraction. The floating bone is possible on both the vertical ramus and on the horizontal ramus.
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ranking = 8
keywords = vertical
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7/30. Improving quality of life with a team approach: a case report.

    An adolescent female who presented amelogenesis imperfecta with severe anterior open bite, long face, facial asymmetry, high angle, and Class III skeletal pattern was treated with an interdisciplinary (orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, and prosthodontics) treatment approach. Presurgical orthodontic treatment was followed by surgical maxillary posterior impaction with anterior advancement and mandibular setback operation with vertical chin reduction and genioplasty. After the surgery, anterior ceramic laminate veneers and posterior full ceramic onlay-crowns were performed. The results showed that function and esthetics were achieved successfully with interdisciplinary collaboration.
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keywords = vertical
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8/30. Microvascular temporomandibular joint and mandibular ramus reconstruction in hemifacial microsomia.

    Microvascular temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and mandibular ramus reconstruction was performed in a 4-year-old hemifacial microsomia patient with multiple craniofacial and extracranial anomalies (goldenhar syndrome). Her major craniofacial anomalies included bilateral cleft lip and palate, left macrostomia, left microtia, and complete absence of the left vertical mandibular ramus and TMJ. Most of her other anomalies had been corrected surgically before TMJ and vertical mandibular ramus reconstruction, which was accomplished with a metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint transplantation. The MTP joint was placed in hyperextended position in the skull base inserting the proximal phalanx under the remnants of the zygomatic arch and replacing the vertical mandibular ramus with the metatarsal bone. Straight mouth opening, correction of the midline, and normalized lateral movements of the mandible were accomplished. The graft includes two epiphyseal plates, which should maintain growth of the transplant. During the follow-up period (16 months) the achieved results have been maintained without adverse effects. The present technique appears to be a promising alternative in the treatment of children with Pruzansky type 3 hemifacial microsomia.
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ranking = 3
keywords = vertical
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9/30. Osteogenic distraction and orthognathic surgery to correct sequelae of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: a case report.

    A 17-year-old female patient presented with sequelae to ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint, which included vertical maxillary protrusion, anterior open bite, labial incompetence, micrognathia, undefined neck angle, facial asymmetry, Class II molar relationship, and Class III canine relationship. She presented with the following cephalometric and soft tissue data: SNA angle = 78 degrees, SNB angle = 70 degrees, incisor-nasion-point A = 11 degrees, incisor-nasion-point B = 33 degrees, Frankfort-mandibular plane angle = 43 degrees, occlusal plane = 25 degrees, subnasale-stomion = 20 mm, stomion superius-stomion inferius = 9 mm, stomion inferius-soft tissue menton = 30 mm, neck angle = 144 degrees, and chin projection = 10 mm. orthognathic surgery and mandibular osteogenic distraction were employed, specifically Le Fort I osteotomy to decrease a vertical excess of 12 mm, augmentation genioplasty of 17 mm, and bilateral extraoral distractors of bidirectional vector for a 14-mm augmentation of the mandible. The result was satisfactory with minimal adverse complications.
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ranking = 2
keywords = vertical
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10/30. Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders.

    A 22-year-old woman had a Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders. A clicking sound was noted in the temporomandibular joint on the posterior crossbite side during jaw opening, and she complained of pain in the masticatory muscles on both sides. The articular disc on the crossbite side was displaced anteriorly without reduction. The patient was treated orthodontically with edgewise appliances and surgically with LeFort I and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies. The result of the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment was facial symmetry and optimal occlusion. The displaced articular disc moved into a normal position, and most of the temporomandibular disorder symptoms improved. At the 2.5-year follow-up, the temporomandibular joint conditions had been maintained.
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keywords = vertical
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