Cases reported "Facial Injuries"

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1/52. diabetes insipidus caused by craniofacial trauma.

    A patient is presented with diabetes insipidus secondary to craniofacial trauma. diabetes insipidus can occur in any patient within ten days of craniofacial trauma. Even the masked disease in the unconscious patient can be diagnosed by observation of intake and output, urinary specific gravities, and appropriate chemical studies. The disease can recur following operative reduction of facial fractures. diabetes insipidus can be successfully treated by intramuscular Pitressin and appropriate fluid intake.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/52. A complication of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring: facial skin burns.

    OBJECTIVE: To report on three cases of severe facial skin burns resulting from intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotidectomies. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a retrospective case review. SETTING: A tertiary referral center. patients: This study includes three patients who underwent parotidectomies with concurrent facial nerve monitoring. RESULTS: Facial skin burns were proven to result from a technical defect of the intraoperative facial nerve monitoring device. burns were sustained at electrode insertion sites and their extent was related to the duration of monitoring. The most probable explanation of these burns is electrolysis. CONCLUSIONS: Successful retracing of technical defaults with biomedical engineers at the device manufacturer have led to the upgrade of the facial nerve monitor apparatus. The benefits of facial nerve monitoring largely outweigh the fortuitous occurrence of skin burns reported in this study. Therefore, this complication should not represent a drawback to the use of facial nerve monitoring.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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3/52. Management of a gunshot wound to the face resulting in a mandibular body fracture with burying of a bicuspid crown into the tongue.

    Gunshot wounds to the maxillofacial region are unpredictable and run the gamut from minor injuries to severe mutilating and life threatening injuries. This patient although unfortunate to have been the victim of mistaken identify resulting in the gunshot wound, was fortunate that the bullet hit his bicuspid, which probably served to deflect its path away from vital structures, thus saving his life. This accounts for the buried bicuspid crown found in the midline of the body of the tongue. Rigid internal fixation of maxillofacial fractures minimizes risks to the airway that may occur if patients are in post-operative maxillo-mandibular fixation during the post-anesthetic recovery phase. In addition, the use of rigid internal fixation speeds up the recovery and the patient's ability to return to function after surgery. Above, we presented an interesting case of a mandibular anterior body fracture resulting from a gunshot wound in the face and resulting in the burying of a bicuspid crown in the substance of the tongue, treated under general nasoendotracheal anesthesia and the use of rigid internal fixation (EDCP).
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/52. Chain saw injury of the mandibulofacial region.

    Use of chain saws is hazardous. Public understanding of the hazards and of modern types of chain saws will eventually help in preventing these injuries. An injury of the mandibulofacial region resulting from a chain saw has been described with special emphasis on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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5/52. Microsurgical combined scapular/parascapular flap for reconstruction of severe neck contracture: case report and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: The reconstruction for severe neck contracture is difficult, because it may include not only the necessity the use of a large flap but also the ability for three-dimensional movement of the neck. methods: A 41-year-old woman sustained a severe neck contracture with retraction of the lower lip and limited range of neck motion after a chemical burn. We used the combined scapular/parascapular flap to reconstruct the soft-tissue defect in the neck after excision of hypertrophic scar and release of contracture. The scapular portion was transferred to cover the defect vertically, and the parascapular portion was transferred to cover the transverse portion of the neck. This kind of design would allow the patient to move her neck more easily. RESULTS: Postoperatively, the range of motion of the neck was full in the vertical and horizontal directions after 6 months of rehabilitation. Also, the patient was satisfied with the final aesthetic results. CONCLUSION: The microsurgical combined scapular/parascapular flap, providing a large area of tissue for coverage in three dimensions with a reliable blood supply by only one pedicle anastomosis during surgery, is a good option for reconstruction of the severe neck contracture. We classify the inset of the combined scapular/parascapular flap into three types with six subtypes, according to the location of defects and the relation of the parascapular flap to the scapular flap.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/52. Mandibular fracture resulting from dog bite: report of a case.

    The diagnosis and management of a fractured mandible of a 4-year old child has been presented. A brief review of the literature is given. The remarkable aspect of the case is its reported cause of dog bite. The patient was managed conservatively by closed reduction, and use of Oliver loops. The maxillomandibular fixation was lost on the 11th postoperative day. At that time, no mandibular deviation or limitation of movement was noted. Further immobilization was not deemed necessary. During a three-month follow-up period, no complications occurred.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/52. Experience with regional flaps in the comprehensive treatment of maxillofacial soft-tissue injuries in war victims.

    This article presents our experience with regional flaps in the treatment of facial soft-tissue defects and deformities in 33 patients with various facial injuries from warfare during the period from 1986 to 1999. Thirty-two males and 1 female aged between 8 and 53 years (mean 24.18 years) were treated with facial soft-tissue injuries from high velocity projectiles and varying degrees of associated hard-tissue injuries. Bullets were the most common cause (70%), followed by injuries from shrapnel (21%), land mines (6%), and breech blocks (3%). The perioral region was involved in 15 cases (45%), the midface and cheeks were involved in 13 cases (39%), and the periorbital area was involved in 5 cases (15%). All soft-tissue injuries were treated primarily by debridement and primary closure and by combining, modifying, and tailoring standard regional flap techniques to fit the location of the injury and compensate for the extent of tissue loss. These procedures consisted basically of local-advancement or rotation-advancement flaps, used in conjunction with pedicled fat or subcutaneous supporting flaps, nasolabial, cheek, cervical, Dieffenbach, and Abbe-type flaps. Scar revision, tissue repositioning, and lengthening procedures, such as W, V-Y, Z, or multiple Z-plasty techniques were also used both primarily and secondarily. Revisions and secondary operations were done in 48% of the patients. Initial healing of the flaps was favourable in 76% of the patients. Postoperative discharge from the suture sites was seen in 24% of the patients, but this usually resolved within several weeks using daily irrigation, and these cases underwent scar revision subsequently. None of the soft-tissue flaps sloughed or developed necrosis. Form and function of the soft-tissue reconstructed regions usually recovered within one year postoperatively. The aesthetic results obtained were favourable. None required facial nerve grafting as only the terminal branches were injured in our cases and functional recovery was acceptable. Application of local tissue transfer procedures in our series of facial warfare injuries yielded acceptable tissue form, texture, and colour match, especially when these procedures were used in combination, and tailored to surgically fit the individual case. Moreover, application of these procedures is relatively easy and postoperative morbidity is limited, provided the general condition of the patient is stable, and the surgical techniques used have good indications and flap principles.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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8/52. The tarsal sandwich: a new technique in lateral canthoplasty.

    PURPOSE: Trauma and infection sometimes produce lower lid malpositions that are difficult to repair cosmetically with standard canthoplasty techniques. A new variation is described. methods: Surgical techniques of the tarsal strip canthoplasty and of lateral tarsorrhaphy are combined into the tarsal sandwich. RESULTS: Representative cases with preoperative and postoperative photos are presented. CONCLUSION: The sandwich technique allows the surgeon more flexibility in achieving the necessary vertical lift of the lateral canthus in difficult cases of entropion, ectropion, and lagophthalmos.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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9/52. Sevoflurane mask anesthesia for urgent tracheostomy in an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway.

    PURPOSE: Proper care of the trauma patient often includes tracheal intubation to insure adequate ventilation and oxygenation, protect the airway from aspiration, and facilitate surgery. airway management can be particularly complex when there are facial bone fractures, head injury and cervical spine instability. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 29-yr-old intoxicated woman suffered a motor vehicle accident. Injuries consisted of multiple abrasions to her head, forehead, and face, right temporal lobe hemorrhage, and complex mandibular fractures with displacement. mouth opening was <10 mm. blood pressure was 106/71 mm Hg, pulse 109, respirations 18, temperature 37.3 degrees C, SpO2 100%. Chest and pelvic radiographs were normal and the there was increased anterior angulation of C4-C5 on the cervical spine film. Drug screen was positive for cocaine and alcohol. The initial plan was to perform awake tracheostomy with local anesthesia. However, the patient was uncooperative despite sedation and infiltration of local anesthesia. Sevoflurane, 1%, inspired in oxygen 100%, was administered via face mask. The concentration of sevoflurane was gradually increased to 4%, and loss of consciousness occurred within one minute. The patient breathed spontaneously and required gentle chin lift and jaw thrust. A cuffed tracheostomy tube was surgically inserted without complication. Blood gas showed pH 7.40, PCO2 35 mm Hg, PO2 396 mm Hg, hematocrit 33.6%. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage was negative. Pulmonary aspiration did not occur. Oxygenation and ventilation were maintained throughout the procedure. CONCLUSION: Continuous mask ventilation with sevoflurane is an appropriate technique when confronted with an uncooperative trauma patient with a difficult airway.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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10/52. Temporoparietal fascial flap in orbital reconstruction.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success of the temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) in the primary or secondary reconstruction of difficult orbital defects and to review the surgical techniques. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary medical center. patients: Nine patients with diverse orbital cavity or periorbital soft tissue and bony defects due to trauma, benign or malignant neoplasms, and radiation treatment. INTERVENTIONS: Temporoparietal fascial flap anatomy and techniques of harvest and inset are reviewed in detail. Four cases are presented to illustrate possible variables in orbital reconstruction. Variables examined include the location of defects, the success of flap survival in orbital cavities after primary or secondary reconstruction, the effects of prior irradiation on flap survival, and the possibility of concurrent osteointegrated implant placement with TPFF reconstruction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Functional and aesthetic outcomes were determined by physical examination and preoperative and postoperative photographs. RESULTS: All patients had successful transfer of TPFF grafts without flap compromise. Temporoparietal fascial flap was a viable option for subtle orbital and malar contour defects. In chronically inflamed wounds such as with osteoradionecrosis and orbitoantral fistula, TPFF successfully restored vascularity, obliterated the defects, and enabled the placement of osteointegrated implants. The TPFF also supported the concurrent placement of a free calvarial bone graft. Finally, split-thickness skin grafted onto a pedicled TPFF showed 100% survival. CONCLUSIONS: The TPFF is one of the most reliable and versatile regional flaps in the head and neck for orbital reconstruction. This study presents the use of TPFF in a variety of orbital defects, from lateral bony rim defects to total exenteration. Timing of repair in this study spans from immediate reconstruction to reconstruction delayed more than 50 years after the initial injury. In all cases, reconstruction with TPFF resulted in improved bony and soft tissue contours, and incurred minimal morbidity.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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