Cases reported "Facial Neuralgia"

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1/26. Persistent facial pain following microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve.

    Pain in the face following microvascular decompression (MVD) can be due to persisting trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) or a variety of other facial pain syndromes. If magnetic resonance tomoangiography (MRTA) indicates continuing vascular compression and the patient has true persistent TGN, then the patient can be relieved of pain by repeating the MVD. When the MRTA is negative for continuing compression alternative techniques may be employed; section of the nerve at the pons may be the treatment of choice for true persistent TGN in the absence of neurovascular compression. In some cases the pain is dysaesthetic in nature and not persistent TGN. This is always associated with previous destructive lesions to the nerve, usually radio-frequency thermocoagulation. When this component to the pain is recognized pre-operatively the patient must be warned not to expect relief of this same component of the pain from MVD. When it is not possible to classify the facial pain clinically, improvement does not occur following MVD even when there is clear evidence of vascular compression on MRTA.
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2/26. Enigmatic pain referred to the teeth and jaws.

    A number of obscure syndromes can mimic dental or jaw pain in the absence of pathosis within these structures. This enigmatic dental pain includes conditions such as pretrigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, temporal tendinitis, and carotodynia. Each of these syndromes is described through a pertinent case report to illustrate appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
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3/26. motor cortex stimulation for neuropathic facial pain.

    facial neuralgia is the last common pathway for a variety of pathological conditions with different etiology. Neuropathic facial pain is often refractory to routine medical or surgical treatments. We present here a long-term follow-up of two patients with unilateral facial neuropathic pain due to idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy or to surgical trauma to the glossopharyngeal nerve, respectively. These patients have been treated by other modalities for several years without obtaining satisfactory pain relief. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex (MCS) with a quadripolar electrode contralateral to the painful area of the face was attempted in both cases for control of the facial pain, and resulted in immediate analgesia with more than 50% pain reduction. During a follow-up period of 72 months, a sufficient (> 50%) and stable analgesic effect of MCS was observed. These cases are discussed and the recent literature on MCS is reviewed in an attempt to identify indications for MCS as well as key structures in the brain for mediating the MCS effect.
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4/26. Chronic varicella-zoster virus ganglionitis--a possible cause of postherpetic neuralgia.

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is dermatomal distribution pain that persists for months to years after the resolution of herpes zoster rash. The cause of PHN is unknown. Herein, we report clinical, molecular virological, and immunological findings over an 11-year period in an immunocompetent elderly woman with PHN. Initially, blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) contained varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna on two consecutive occasions. Random testing after treatment with famciclovir to relieve pain did not detect VZV dna. However, the patient was reluctant to continue famciclovir indefinitely and voluntarily stopped drug treatment five times. Pain always recurred within 1 week, and blood MNCs contained many, but not all, regions of the VZV genome on all five occasions. Immunological analysis revealed increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV. Chronic VZV ganglionitis-induced PHN best explains the recurrence of VZV dna in MNCs whenever famciclovir was discontinued; the detection of only some regions of the viral genome in MNCs, compared to the detection of all regions of the VZV genome in latently infected ganglia; the increased cell-mediated immunity to VZV; and a gratifying clinical response to famciclovir. The presence of fragments of VZV dna in MNCs likely represents partial degradation of viral dna in MNCs that trafficked through ganglia during productive infection.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neuralgia
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5/26. Oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain.

    PURPOSE: In this investigation, we evaluated a population of patients with chronic orofacial pain who sought treatment at a pain center in an academic institution. These patients were evaluated with respect to 1) the frequency and types of previous oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, 2) the frequency of previous significant misdiagnoses, and 3) the number of patients who subsequently required surgical treatment as recommended by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team. The major goal of this investigation was to determine the role of oral and maxillofacial surgery in patients with chronic orofacial pain. patients and methods: The study population included patients seen at the Center for Oral, Facial and Head Pain at new york Presbyterian Hospital from January 1999 through April 2001. (120 patients; female-to-male ratio, 3:1; mean age, 49 years; average pain duration, 81 months; average number of previous specialists, 6). The patient population was evaluated by an interdisciplinary orofacial pain team and the following characteristics of this population were profiled: 1) the frequency and types of previous surgical procedures, 2) diagnoses, 3) the frequency of previous misdiagnoses, and 4) treatment recommendations made by the center team. RESULTS: There was a history of previous oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures in 38 of 120 patients (32%). Procedures performed before our evaluation included endodontics (30%), extractions (27%), apicoectomies (12%), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery (6%), neurolysis (5%), orthognathic surgery (3%), and debridement of bone cavities (2%). Surgical intervention clearly exacerbated pain in 21 of 38 patients (55%) who had undergone surgery. Diagnoses included myofascial pain (50%), atypical facial neuralgia (40%), depression (30%), TMJ synovitis (14%), TMJ osteoarthritis (12%), trigeminal neuralgia (10%), and TMJ fibrosis (2%). Treatment recommendations included medications (91%), physical therapy (36%), psychiatric management (30%), trigger injections (15%), oral appliances (13%), biofeedback (13%), acupuncture (8%), surgery (4%), and Botox injections (1%) (Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA). Gross misdiagnosis leading to serious sequelae, with delay of necessary treatment, occurred in 6 of 120 patients (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosis and multiple failed treatments were common in these patients with chronic orofacial pain. These patients often have multiple diagnoses, requiring management by multiple disciplines. Surgery, when indicated, must be based on a specific diagnosis that is amenable to surgical therapy. However, surgical treatment was rarely indicated as a treatment for pain relief in these patients with chronic orofacial pain, and it exacerbated and perpetuated pain symptoms in some of them.
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keywords = neuralgia
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6/26. Occipital neuralgia and twelfth nerve palsy from a chondromyxoid fibroma.

    The purpose of this case report is to record the unusual combination of occipital neuralgia and hypoglossal nerve palsy causing dysarthria, dysphagia, and unilateral weakness of tongue protrusion, with no other neurological findings. The cause was a discrete tumor in the clivus and the right occipital condyle. Following surgical resection of the tumor, dysarthria and dysphagia persisted. These improved with therapy by a speech therapist, but deviation of the tongue persisted on protrusion. No similar case reports were found in the literature. In addition, the tumor was an unusual one, a chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF); these tumors uncommonly involve the skull base.
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ranking = 5
keywords = neuralgia
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7/26. herpes zoster in hiv infection with osteonecrosis of the jaw and tooth exfoliation.

    BACKGROUND: herpes zoster (HZ) infection of the trigeminal nerve is associated with complications such as postherpetic neuralgia, facial scarring, loss of hearing ability and conjunctivitis. Until 2005, postherpetic alveolar necrosis and spontaneous tooth exfoliation have been described in 20 cases unrelated to hiv infection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe hiv infection in patients (two women, two men, average age 30 years) who suffered from HZ attacks to their trigeminal nerves. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: None of the patients had received antiherpetic medications or antiretroviral therapy. hiv infection was only diagnosed after the development of HZ. Facial scarring with depigmentation and hyperesthesia (postherpetic neuralgia) was diagnosed in all four patients. Oral findings consisted of spontaneous loss of both maxillary or mandibular teeth. osteonecrosis of varying extent was also found. Treatment consisted of extractions of teeth and administration of antibiotics and analgesics. Healing of alveolar wounds was unremarkable. CONCLUSION: Complications affecting the alveolar bone and teeth seem to be rare in hiv-infected patients.
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ranking = 2
keywords = neuralgia
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8/26. Occipital neuralgia evoked by facial herpes zoster infection.

    Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. We report a patient with occipital neuralgia followed by facial herpes lesion. A 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area. The pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster. This case represents a combination of facial herpes lesions and pain in the C2 and C3 regions. The pain syndromes can be confusing, and the classic herpes zoster infection should be considered even when no skin lesions are established.
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ranking = 7
keywords = neuralgia
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9/26. Retrolabyrinthine approach: technique and newer indications.

    Excellent exposure of the cerebellopontine angle is obtained by an approach through the mastoid posterior to the labyrinth. Since the major portion of the dissection is extradural, this approach is associated with a very low morbidity. The retrolabyrinthine approach has been used for several years for selective partial section of the posterior root of the trigeminal nerve in cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Complete relief of pain has been accomplished in 25 of 28 cases, and the other 3 patients had partial relief of pain. The only complications in these patients were partial hearing impairment in 2, and 1 partial abducens nerve paralysis which subsequently recovered completely. Two patients required secondary closure of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. This approach has also been used for exploration and biopsy of cerebellopontine angle tumors and for treatment of other cranial nerve problems. We conclude that the retrolabyrinthine approach is the preferred route to the cerebellopontine angle in a variety of clinical conditions.
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keywords = neuralgia
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10/26. Post-traumatic external nasal neuralgia--an often missed cause of facial pain?

    Pain about the bridge of the nose is often a diagnostic dilemma. There is an important recognizable subgroup who may, as a consequence of involvement of the external nasal nerve in nasal injury, exhibit neuralgic pain after a latent interval. Temporary relief by anaesthesia can be achieved and cure is possible by division of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. This rare cause of facial pain is presented using two illustrative cases.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neuralgia
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