Cases reported "Facial Pain"

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1/13. The incidence and influence of abnormal styloid conditions on the etiology of craniomandibular functional disorders.

    This study aimed to examine the incidence and influence of craniomandibular functional disorders caused by abnormal styloid-stylohyoid chains. Seven hundred sixty-five patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were divided into two groups (with and without radiographically visible abnormal styloid conditions). In the group with abnormal stylohyoid conditions, the etiology of TMJ disorders was further subdivided into poly-, oligo- and monoetiological factors, and, after this classification, evaluated regarding a clear, possible or unlikely involvement of abnormal stylohyoid conditions in TMJ disorders. One hundred thirty-six out of 765 patients presented abnormal styloid-stylohyoid chains. One hundred five of the patients (77.2%) demonstrated polyetiological causes of TMJ symptoms with an unlikely involvement of the abnormal styloid-stylohyoid chain. Twenty-nine of the patients (21.3%) showed oligoetiological causes with possible involvement of the abnormal styloid-stylohyoid chain. In two patients (1.5%), the abnormal styloid conditions showed up as the only definite cause of TMJ symptoms (monoetiological). Detailed knowledge of variations and possible effects of suprahyoid structures is important for an accurate diagnosis of TMJ disorders. All in all, the incidence of a stylohyoid involvement in TMJ disorders is very low. However, after an initial subdivision into abnormal and normal stylohyoid conditions, the incidence of pathological stylohyoid chains gains significant importance in the etiology of TMJ disorders.
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2/13. Positron emission tomography study of a chronic pain patient successfully treated with somatosensory thalamic stimulation.

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested that the neuronal network underlying the perception of chronic pain may differ from that underlying acute pain. To further map the neural network associated with chronic pain, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to determine significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in a patient with chronic facial pain. The patient is implanted with a chronic stimulation electrode in the left ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus with which he can completely suppress his chronic pain. The patient was scanned in the following conditions: before thalamic stimulation (pain, no stimulation), during thalamic stimulation (no pain, stimulation) and after successful thalamic stimulation (no pain, no stimulation). Comparing baseline scans during pain with scans taken after stimulation, when the patient had become pain-free, revealed significant rCBF increases in the prefrontal (Brodmann areas (BA) 9, 10, 11 and 47) and anterior insular cortices, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray associated with the presence of chronic pain. No significant rCBF changes occurred in thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, BA 24'. Significant rCBF decreases were observed in the substantia nigra/nucleus ruber and in the anterior pulvinar nucleus. During thalamic stimulation, blood flow significantly increased in the amygdala and anterior insular cortex. These data further support that there are important differences in the cerebral processing of acute and chronic pain.
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3/13. facial pain due to vascular lesions of the brain stem relieved by dorsal root entry zone lesions in the nucleus caudalis. Report of two cases.

    One patient with a pontine infarct due to a fusiform basilar artery aneurysm and one with an arteriovenous malformation within the tectum of the mesencephalon developed intractable facial pain. This pain was relieved in both patients by radiofrequency lesions in the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis.
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4/13. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the ethmoidal sinus in a child presenting with isolated pain in the nasal region.

    The authors present a case of a previously healthy 8-year-old girl who presented with pain on the right side of the nose (bony part) radiating to the frontal and temporal regions. physical examination was normal, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the facial region revealed a tumor limited to the right ethmoidal sinus with a small extension to the medial wall and the upper part of the nasal septum. The tumor was removed by using a 5-degree nasoscope and sent for pathologic examination, which revealed a cemento-ossifying fibroma of the ethmoidal sinus. This is a rare condition, and MRI is a valuable tool in its detection because results of physical examination may be normal in patients reporting nasal pain. According to the world health organization classification, this tumor is a variant of cementifying fibromas, which represent a subgroup of cementomas, fibro-osseous lesions containing cementum. Cementifying fibromas are rare tumors. They are usually small, asymptomatic lesions, but although benign, they can develop into aggressive, expansible masses.
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5/13. Tremor induced by thalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with complex regional facial pain.

    We report on two patients who developed a new postural and action tremor after chronic stimulation of the contralateral thalamus (VPM nucleus) during treatment of a complex regional facial pain syndrome. The tremor was only present during deep brain stimulation (DBS) and was suppressed with adjustment of the stimulation parameters. Tremor was seen only with low frequency stimulation (50 Hz or lower) and disappeared with higher stimulation frequencies. In addition to being an unusual side effect of thalamic DBS, we believe that this phenomenon affords insight into one possible mechanism underlying essential tremor (ET). A central oscillatory mechanism involving the olivocerebellar complex and the thalamus, which is a part of the cerebro-cerebello-cerebral circuit, is thought to play an important role in the genesis of ET. Induction of a tremor resembling ET in our patients indicates an active role for low frequency stimulation. A plausible explanation for this is that low frequency stimulation in the thalamic area enhances the output of the tremor-producing network. This leads credence to the concept of central oscillations in a "tremor circuit," of which the thalamus is a part, as being important in ET.
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6/13. Anatomic examination of a case of open trigeminal nucleotomy (nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesions) for facial pain.

    Nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesions (open trigeminal nucleotomy) are a surgical procedure which can achieve pain control without major complications in the difficult clinical setting of deafferentation-type facial pain. Two patients are reported, who had relief of pain, but also experienced neurological complications. One patient succumbed to pulmonary complications, which provided the opportunity for anatomic analysis of the lesioned area, which is discussed in detail. Potential modifications of the surgical technique are suggested.
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ranking = 2002.4521818531
keywords = nucleus
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7/13. Post-traumatic external nasal neuralgia--an often missed cause of facial pain?

    Pain about the bridge of the nose is often a diagnostic dilemma. There is an important recognizable subgroup who may, as a consequence of involvement of the external nasal nerve in nasal injury, exhibit neuralgic pain after a latent interval. Temporary relief by anaesthesia can be achieved and cure is possible by division of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. This rare cause of facial pain is presented using two illustrative cases.
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8/13. aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation and arteriovenous fistula in posterior fossa compression syndrome.

    To discuss the problem of neuroradiological preoperative procedures in patients with therapy-resistant facial pain, we present 3 case examples of vascular processes in the cerebellopontine angle (aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula). The microsurgical treatment in combination with artificial embolization is described. The vascular causes of microvascular compression at the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve and malformations involving the nucleus caudalis are reviewed.
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ranking = 500.61304546328
keywords = nucleus
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9/13. Paroxysmal facial pain in disseminated sclerosis treated by retrogasserian glycerol injection.

    In the material of patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated by retrogasserian glycerol injection at the Karolinska Hospital, 23 cases (8%) were also diagnosed as suffering from disseminated sclerosis. These patients were often on carbamazepine treatment before the procedure, a regimen known to cause severe side effects and increase pre-existing symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. Following glycerol injection, more than 90% became pain-free within the first 2 months and 82% could discontinue drug therapy. This initial outcome corresponds well to the results in our larger series, but the long-term results in the group with multiple sclerosis is less satisfactory, with 61% recurrence at follow-up 8-79 months following treatment. In total 48% were pain-free at follow-up, following reinjections in 8 cases. In spite of less satisfactory long-term results, more than three-fourths of the patients wanted another glycerol injection after only low-dose trial with carbamazepine in case of recurrence.
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10/13. Differential diagnosis of jaw pain in the elderly.

    While many diseases are marked by pain in the mandible or maxilla, a number of these conditions appear to be more prevalent in people 65 years and older. People in this age group often have a number of medical problems and take a variety of medications, so clear-cut diagnosis of jaw pain can be difficult. memory deficits or concomitant somatic complaints can further complicate the diagnosis. This article presents a differential for jaw pain in the elderly and reports on a pertinent case.
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