Cases reported "Facies"

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1/70. Jagged1 mutations in patients ascertained with isolated congenital heart defects.

    Mutations in Jagged1 cause alagille syndrome (AGS), a pleiotropic disorder with involvement of the liver, heart, skeleton, eyes, and facial structures. Cardiac defects are seen in more than 95% of AGS patients. Most commonly these are right-sided defects ranging from mild peripheral pulmonic stenosis to severe forms of tetralogy of fallot. AGS demonstrates highly variable expressivity with respect to all of the involved systems. This leads us to hypothesize that defects in Jagged1 can be found in patients with presumably isolated heart defects, such as tetralogy of fallot or pulmonic stenosis. Two patients with heart defects of the type seen in AGS and their relatives were investigated for alterations in the Jagged1 gene. Jagged1 was screened by a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques. Patient 1 was studied because of a four-generation history of pulmonic stenosis. Molecular analysis showed a point mutation in Jagged1 in the patient and her mother. Patient 2 was investigated owing to the finding of tetralogy of fallot and a "butterfly" vertebra on chest radiograph first noted at age 5 years. She was found to have a deletion of chromosome region 20p12 that encompassed the entire Jagged1 gene. The identification of these two patients suggests that other patients with right-sided heart defects may have subtle findings of AGS and Jagged1 mutations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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2/70. A de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q15.2q21.2) in a dysmorphic, mentally retarded child with congenital scalp defect.

    We report a rare chromosomal finding in a boy with a pronounced scalp defect, dysmorphic features and mental retardation. Initially, what seemed to be a normal karyotype by conventional karyotyping was determined to be a de novo deletion involving 15(q15.2q21.2) by high resolution banding. Consequently, prometaphase analysis is warranted in some cases when conventional karyotype analysis appears normal.
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ranking = 4
keywords = chromosome
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3/70. Miller-Dieker syndrome and trisomy 5p in a child carrying a derivative chromosome with a microdeletion in 17p13.3 telomeric to the LIS1 and the D17S379 loci.

    trisomy 5p and Miller-Dieker syndromes frequently are the result of unbalanced segregations of reciprocal translocations of chromosomes 5 and 17 with other autosomes. The critical regions for the expression of the mentioned syndromes have been mapped to 5p13-->pter, and 17p13.3-->pter. In this report, we describe an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, generalized muscular hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly, cortical atrophy, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, cerebral ventriculomegaly, facial anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, pectus excavatum, long fingers, and bilateral talipes equinovarus caused by the presence of a 46,XX,der(17)t(5;17)(p13.1;p13.3)mat chromosome complement. Cytogenetic studies of the family confirmed a balanced reciprocal translocation (5;17)(p13.1;p13.3) in her mother, maternal grandfather, maternal aunt, and a female first cousin. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on the mother and the proposita using three probes, which map to distal 17p, confirmed the reciprocal translocation in the mother and a terminal deletion in the patient, which resulted in the retention of LIS1 and D17S379 loci and deletion of the 17p telomere. These findings and the phenotype of the proposita, strongly suggest that genes telomeric to LIS1 and locus D17S379 are involved in many clinical findings, including the minor facial anomalies of the Miller-Dieker syndrome.
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ranking = 6
keywords = chromosome
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4/70. Case of partial trisomy 2q3 with clinical manifestations of Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    We describe a girl with physical anomalies, accelerated skeletal maturation, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties consistent with a diagnosis of Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS). Chromosome analysis showed an inverted duplication of chromosome 2 [46,XX,inv dup(2)(q37q32) de novo] identified by G banding and confirmed by FISH. Several cases of trisomy 2q3 have been reported and established a syndrome, but the present case is the first to be associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and a clinical picture resembling MSS. This raises the possibility that the cause of MSS involves the q3 region of chromosome 2. Few reports of MSS include study of the karyotype, although the chromosomes were apparently normal in those cases where they have been examined. We suggest that karyotyping be undertaken with particular attention to the 2q3 region in patients with suspected MSS. It also would be prudent to assess bone age in all children with trisomy 2q.
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ranking = 3
keywords = chromosome
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5/70. Syndrome of microcephaly, Dandy-Walker malformation, and wilms tumor caused by mosaic variegated aneuploidy with premature centromere division (PCD): report of a new case and review of the literature.

    We report a male infant with multiple congenital anomalies and mosaic variegated aneuploidy; a rare cytogenetic abnormality characterized by mosaicism for several different aneuploidies involving many different chromosomes. He had prenatal-onset growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic face, seizures, hypotonia, feeding difficulty, and developmental delay. In addition, he developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Neuroradiological examination revealed Dandy-Walker malformation and hypoplasia of the cerebral hemisphere and pons. cytogenetic analysis revealed various multiple numerical aneuploidies in blood lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow cells, together with premature centromere division (PCD). Peripheral blood chromosome analysis from his parents also showed PCD, but no aneuploid cells. The clinical phenotype and multiple aneuploidies of the patient may be a consequence of the homozygous PCD trait inherited from his parents. Comparison with previously reported cases of multiple aneuploidy suggests that mosaic variegated aneuploidy with PCD may be a clinically recognizable syndrome with major phenotypes being mental retardation, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies (including Dandy-Walker malformation), and possible cancer predisposition.
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ranking = 2
keywords = chromosome
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6/70. Molecular cytogenetics of a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome arm 6q in a developmentally normal girl.

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite analysis, we have characterized a de novo interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 6 [46,XX,del(6) (q23.3q24.2)] in a developmentally normal girl with very mild phenotypic abnormalities. The deletion was paternal in origin and was between markers WI-5023 and D6S1042. The size of the deletion was estimated to be approximately 4-5 Mb. The normal phenotype in this patient might be the result of imprinting of paternal copies of genes located in the segment 6q23. 3-q24.2. Alternatively, the genes located in the segment 6q23.3-q24. 2 might not be subject to dosage effects and therefore the haploinsufficiency of genes in this segment might not have phenotypic consequences.
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ranking = 5
keywords = chromosome
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7/70. Characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement in a patient with a typical catlike cry and no other clinical findings of cri-du-chat syndrome.

    We report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular cytogenetic findings in a 4-year-old girl who was evaluated for developmental delay and a catlike cry from birth. No other findings of cri-du-chat syndrome were present. karyotype analysis demonstrated a de novo deletion and inverted duplication of the 5p region. The abnormality was confirmed and further defined by detailed FISH analysis using cosmid and lambda phage clones previously mapped to distinct regions of 5p. The analyses documented deletion of 5p15.3-->pter and an inverted duplication of 5p14-->5p15.3. The deleted segment on 5p contains the region implicated in the isolated catlike cry feature of the cri-du-chat syndrome, confirming that the genes involved in the catlike cry map to the distal end of 5p. Except for the catlike cry and possibly the developmental delay that may be due to the deletion of 5p, the duplication of 5p14-->5p15.3 in this patient did not present with additional anomalies. This study further demonstrates the usefulness of the molecular cytogenetic approach for characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements. Such analyses of patients with an isolated catlike cry can avoid an incorrect diagnosis of the cri-du-chat syndrome, which is associated with a more severe prognosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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8/70. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 5 in a neonate due to maternal insertion, ins(8;5)(p23;q33q35).

    We describe an infant girl with an interstitial deletion of chromosome bands 5q33 to 5q35 inherited from a maternal interchromosomal insertion ins(8;5)(p23;q33q35) which was demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Physical anomalies included hypertonicity, microcephaly, short neck, apparently low-set ears, micrognathia, camptodactyly, mild rocker bottom feet, and hammer toe. Cardiac anomalies included a large ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension and hypoplastic right ventricle. She died at age 3 months.
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ranking = 6
keywords = chromosome
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9/70. Detection of a cryptic translocation t(13;20)(q34;p13) in an unexplained case of MCA/MR: value of FISH over high resolution banding.

    Cryptic unbalanced chromosome rearrangements in the telomeric bands of the chromosomes may constitute a significant cause of unexplained mental retardation with or without congenital anomalies. We report on a boy with a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13, combined with a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 20, owing to a cryptic balanced translocation in his father. The karyotype of the father was 46XY,t(13;20)(q34;p13). The propositus presented with severe mental and growth retardation, microcephaly, facial anomalies including ptosis of the right upper eyelid, a high nasal bridge, small palpebral fissures, and bilateral epicanthus, hypospadias, and scoliosis. A younger brother died at birth and had a low birth weight, hypospadias, and a horseshoe kidney. Repeated chromosome analyses with high resolution banding in the propositus and his parents were apparently normal. chromosome painting eventually disclosed the cryptic translocation in the father with unbalanced karyotype in the propositus. The importance of additional FISH analysis in patients with unexplained mental retardation, physical anomalies, and apparently normal chromosomes is emphasized.
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ranking = 6
keywords = chromosome
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10/70. Familial deletion of 22q11.2.

    We present a mother and her son, both carrying a deletion of chromosome 22q.11.2. They manifest clinical heterogeneity. The mother has schizophrenia, an IQ of 70. tetralogy of fallot, a hypernasal voice, but does not have the characteristic facies. Her son has mild psychomotor developmental delay. tetralogy of fallot and mild facial features characteristic of VCFS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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