Cases reported "Facies"

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1/386. Hemifacial microsomia: oral, clinical, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings.

    Oral, clinical, genetic and dermatoglyphic findings of a female patient with hemifacial microsomia are described and compared with those cited in the literature. ( info)

2/386. Study of the cell biology and biochemistry of cherubism.

    AIMS: To establish whether the multinucleate cells in lesions of patients with cherubism are also osteoclasts and if this is the case whether they were responsive to calcitonin; to carry out cytogenetic studies on two members of the same family affected by cherubism in an attempt to identify any major chromosomal defects; and to perform an in-depth modern biochemical study of four children in the same family. SUBJECTS AND methods: Four related children with cherubism were studied. Tissue taken from one of the children at elective decompression of an optic nerve was submitted to in vitro bone resorption studies. Cytogenetic studies were done on two of the children and biochemical studies on all four. RESULTS: The multinucleate cells in the cherubic lesions were shown to be osteoclasts since they synthesised tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, expressed the vitronectin receptor, and resorbed bone. bone resorption by the cultured multinucleate cells was significantly inhibited by calcitonin. High resolution cytogenetic studies failed to detect any chromosomal abnormalities in two children with cherubism. The biochemistry profile of all four children with cherubism showed that serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid related hormone, calcitonin, and alkaline phosphatase were within normal levels. urine analysis of pyridinium and deoxypyridinium cross links, hydroxyproline, and calcium in relation to urine creatinine were measured to assess bone resorption in these children, and the values were at the upper end of the normal range in all four. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are required to determine whether calcitonin treatment will control this grossly deforming disease until the time when the physiological changes that occur at puberty rectify the pathology. It is not recommended that biochemical markers of bone resorption are used in isolation to monitor the activity of cherubism in individuals because the results are based on a small number of children and because of reports of marked interindividual variation in the levels of these markers, particularly in children. ( info)

3/386. Young-Simpson syndrome: further delineation of a distinct syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, and mental retardation.

    Young-Simpson syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by congenital hypothyroidism, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism in males, hypotonia, mental retardation, and postnatal growth retardation. We describe the cases of a 5-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl with a similar constellation of symptoms and compared them with previously reported patients. ( info)

4/386. Jagged1 mutations in patients ascertained with isolated congenital heart defects.

    Mutations in Jagged1 cause alagille syndrome (AGS), a pleiotropic disorder with involvement of the liver, heart, skeleton, eyes, and facial structures. Cardiac defects are seen in more than 95% of AGS patients. Most commonly these are right-sided defects ranging from mild peripheral pulmonic stenosis to severe forms of tetralogy of fallot. AGS demonstrates highly variable expressivity with respect to all of the involved systems. This leads us to hypothesize that defects in Jagged1 can be found in patients with presumably isolated heart defects, such as tetralogy of fallot or pulmonic stenosis. Two patients with heart defects of the type seen in AGS and their relatives were investigated for alterations in the Jagged1 gene. Jagged1 was screened by a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques. Patient 1 was studied because of a four-generation history of pulmonic stenosis. Molecular analysis showed a point mutation in Jagged1 in the patient and her mother. Patient 2 was investigated owing to the finding of tetralogy of fallot and a "butterfly" vertebra on chest radiograph first noted at age 5 years. She was found to have a deletion of chromosome region 20p12 that encompassed the entire Jagged1 gene. The identification of these two patients suggests that other patients with right-sided heart defects may have subtle findings of AGS and Jagged1 mutations. ( info)

5/386. A de novo deletion of chromosome 15(q15.2q21.2) in a dysmorphic, mentally retarded child with congenital scalp defect.

    We report a rare chromosomal finding in a boy with a pronounced scalp defect, dysmorphic features and mental retardation. Initially, what seemed to be a normal karyotype by conventional karyotyping was determined to be a de novo deletion involving 15(q15.2q21.2) by high resolution banding. Consequently, prometaphase analysis is warranted in some cases when conventional karyotype analysis appears normal. ( info)

6/386. A boy with choanal atresia and cardiac defect: Burn-McKeown syndrome?

    We report on a child we believe may have the same condition described in five children by Burn et al., in 1992 (Clin Dysmorphol 1:137-144). Component manifestations include choanal atresia, cardiac defects, prominent ears, hearing loss, and minor facial anomalies. Our patient also has rather significant short stature, thus adding to the variable phenotype of this condition. ( info)

7/386. A new syndrome of short stature, distinctive facial features and periventricular grey matter heterotopia.

    We report on a male infant with distinctive facial features, short stature and rhizomelic upper limb shortening. His MRI brain scan showed abnormal ventricular architecture and bilateral periventricular nodular grey matter heterotopia (BPNH). This child represents an apparently new dysmorphic syndrome. ( info)

8/386. brachydactyly type B with its distinct facies and 'Cooks syndrome' are the same entity.

    A sibling pair with brachydactyly type B born to a normal non-consanguineous couple are described and the severity of their condition discussed. It is proposed that a subgroup of individuals with brachydactyly type B principally involving the nails and distal phalanges, and also having distinct facies, might be identical to individuals having 'Cooks syndrome'. ( info)

9/386. skin eruption as the presenting sign of Hunter syndrome IIB.

    We present a case of Hunter syndrome diagnosed because of skin eruption. A 4-year-old Japanese boy presented with a 3-4-months history of papular lesions on the back and extremities. His growth and development were almost normal. His face was not of coarse appearance. He had multiple, whitish to skin-coloured, papules and nodules symmetrically distributed on the scapular regions and the extensor aspects of the upper arms and thighs. There was no family history of similar symptoms. skin biopsy showed the deposition of a considerable amount of mucin in the dermis. Although physical examinations failed to detect any other signs of Hunter syndrome, x-rays showed the characteristic features of mucopolysaccharidosis: deformities of the vertebral bone, ribs, and pelvis. Mucopolysaccharide analysis of the urine revealed a marked increase in dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate. The activity of iduronate sulphatase in the lymphocytes was deficient, which was diagnostic for Hunter syndrome. We emphasize that the skin eruption can be the earliest sign of Hunter syndrome, particularly in the mild form presenting with normal development and growth. ( info)

10/386. Unusually prolonged survival and childhood-onset epilepsy in a case of alobar holoprosencephaly.

    Alobar holoprosencephaly is one of the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Most affected infants are stillborn or have a very short life-span. The survivors can present with neonatal seizures and/or infantile spasms. We report on an unusually long-lived patient with alobar holoprosencephaly and minor facial dysmorphism, who developed generalized epilepsy during childhood. ( info)
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