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1/10. Unusual manifestations of hereditary angioedema.

    Hereditary angioedema is a hereditary disorder transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, characterized by reduced plasma concentration of C1 esterase inhibitor (type 1) or the presence of non functional C1 esterase inhibitor (type 2). We describe and discuss the case of a 35-year-old man who presented two unusual clinical manifestations of type 2 hereditary angioedema causing diverse emergency situations: acute abdomen and parasellar oedema.
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2/10. pneumonia presenting as acute abdomen in children: a report of three cases.

    From 10th September 1998 till 5th June 1999, the Paediatric and Cardiothoracic Surgery Units of Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru managed three children with lung collapse secondary to pneumonia. The dominant initial clinical presentation in all three cases was acute abdominal pain. Basal pneumonia was diagnosed in two cases post-operatively after surgical contributory causes were excluded intra-operatively. thoracotomy, evacuation of infected debris and decortication of the collapsed lung was done in all three cases. In children presenting with acute abdominal pain, basal pneumonia should be considered as a possible contributory cause.
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3/10. Acute abdominal attack of hereditary angioneurotic oedema associated with ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of acute hepatitis.

    Hereditary angioneurotic oedema (HANO) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a deficiency of the inhibitor protein Cl-esterase. Recurrent subcutaneous and/or submucosal oedema formation is a hallmark of this disease. HANO is a rare, but potentially life-threatening disorder with a mortality around 20-30%. Acute oedematous abdominal attacks of HANO can mimic a surgical emergency; this is exemplified by the case of a 14-y-old male patient with HANO admitted for such clinical manifestations. Conclusion: Diagnostic clues include ascites and abnormalities of hepatic structure visible with ultrasound during the oedematous attack. The importance of appropriate treatment is emphasized.
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4/10. Ruptured giant liver cyst: a rare cause of acute abdomen in a haemodialysis patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common hereditary disorder. Although liver involvement is the most frequent extra-renal manifestation, serious complications due to liver cysts are very rare. We report the occurrence of an acute abdomen caused by massive haemoperitoneum resulting from rupture of a giant liver cyst in ADPKD. Data suggest that chronic anticoagulation therapy should be avoided where possible in the presence of a giant liver cyst.
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5/10. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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6/10. Ovarian dysgerminoma and acute abdomen.

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian dysgerminoma cases are very rarely presented together with acute abdomen. The purpose of this study is to present dysgerminoma ovarii with abdominal pain in lower right abdominal part after abdominal trauma as an abdominal emergency. patients AND methods: Our 12-year old female patient was admitted to our hospital after traffic accident with abdominal trauma. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and the mass in lower abdomen was palpated. Ultrasound and CT examinations showed the presence of large, multilobulated and predominantly solid pelvic mass. Fluid was found in the lower part of pelvis. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. It exposed a superficial actively bleeding tumour vessel. We stopped the bleeding and did a biopsy of the tumour because it was too big for surgical treatment. CONCLUSION: Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in female children with acute surgical abdomen when a solid mass is detected by ultrasonographic scan (Fig. 4, Ref. 11).
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7/10. A case of group B streptococcal pyomyositis.

    The group B streptococcus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of serious infections including bacteremias, puerperal sepsis, and neonatal meningitis. Group B streptococcal infections of muscle are rare. We report here an unusual case of group B streptococcal pyomyositis. pyomyositis arises predominantly from infections caused by staphylococcus aureus and, occasionally, streptococcus pyogenes. Because of the rarity of pyomyositis in temperate climates, the common lack of localizing signs or symptoms, and the frequently negative blood cultures, considerable delay often precedes the diagnosis of pyomyositis; in fact, the infection has been initially misdiagnosed as muscle hematoma, cellulitis, thrombophlebitis, osteomyelitis, or neoplasm. diagnosis may be greatly aided by radiologic techniques that can demonstrate the sites of muscle enlargement and the presence of fluid collections. The response to antibiotics is usually rapid, but resolution of the infection may require aspiration of deeply situated muscle abscesses. This report describes a diabetic patient with an unusual presentation of pyomyositis that mimicked an acute abdomen.
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8/10. polyarteritis nodosa. An unusual cause of acute abdomen.

    Two cases of acute abdomen operated on twice and biopsy specimens confirmed are presented. The diagnosis of a systemic necrotizing vasculitis group of polyarteritis nodosa was established. The syndrome affects predominantly males between the second and forth decade of life. The gastrointestinal tract is involved in approximately 50% of the cases. While a negative laparotomy may be considered as a surgical pit-fall, nevertheless, it is the only way of establishing the diagnosis and treating the complications of the disease in some of the cases.
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9/10. Apathetic thyrotoxicosis presenting as an abdominal emergency: a diagnostic pitfall.

    thyrotoxicosis may present with a hyperkinetic clinical picture typically associated with Graves' or Plummer's disease, or in an apathetic form characterized by lethargy, weakness, and withdrawal. Both the hyperkinetic and apathetic forms of thyrotoxicosis may be associated with or masked by predominantly extrathyroidal manifestations, occasionally referable primarily to the abdomen. We present two cases of apathetic thyrotoxicosis that suggested the need for urgent surgical intervention, and review the literature on apathetic thyrotoxicosis as an abdominal emergency, as well as laboratory studies and possible etiology.
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10/10. Acute abdomen masquerading as acute retention.

    Urologists should remain constantly alert for patients with acute abdominal emergencies who may be admitted under their care with the erroneous diagnosis of acute retention. These cases are not uncommon. The patients may be suffering from suppression of urine, or their inability to pass urine may be the predominant symptom of their intra-abdominal catastrophe. When catheterization has yielded only a small amount of concentrated urine and has failed to relieve the patient's discomfort, think of an acute abdomen, investigate this possibility and treat the patient accordingly.
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