Cases reported "Fanconi Anemia"

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1/65. Detection of monosomy 7 in bone marrow by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A study of fanconi anemia patients and review of the literature.

    monosomy 7 is frequently found in the bone marrow of patients with fanconi anemia (FA), marrow myelodysplasia, or acute myelogenous leukemia and is associated with poor prognosis. In our laboratory, cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow from an FA patient found 2 of 30 cells with monosomy 7, but the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that 83 of 207 cells (40%) had monosomy 7. FISH was then used to analyze two earlier samples from the index case, neither of which had monosomy 7 as determined by standard cytogenetics. The FISH analysis determined that the first sample, taken 19 months earlier, had 8 of 200 cells (4%) with monosomy 7 and the second sample. taken 7 months later, contained 43 of 200 cells (21.5%) with monosomy 7. These results indicate a slow evolution toward monosomy 7 in the patient's bone marrow. Standard metaphase chromosome analysis represents only spontaneously dividing cells, leading us to hypothesize that FISH was detecting monosomy 7 in nondividing cells and that it might be useful in the early detection of abnormal clones. To test this hypothesis, FISH was performed on 13 bone marrow samples from nine patients with FA who did not exhibit monosomy 7 by cytogenetic analysis. monosomy 7 was detected in 3.44% of nuclei in FA patients and in 3% of nuclei in normal controls. To date, none of these nine FA patients have developed monosomy 7 or leukemia. They are being monitored by standard cytogenetics and by FISH to determine whether monosomy 7 develops and whether it can be detected by FISH prior to its detection by standard cytogenetics. As standard practice, we have adopted FISH analysis for monosomy 7 in all patients with FA.
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2/65. Normal expression of the fanconi anemia proteins FAA and FAC and sensitivity to mitomycin C in two patients with Seckel syndrome.

    Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The classical presentation includes pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance. There have been several reports of associated hematological abnormalities and chromosomal breakage, findings suggestive of fanconi anemia (FA). We tested for these findings in two Arabic patients with this syndrome. We compared the growth profile of lymphoblastoid cells from our patients and their parents with the FA group A cell line HSC72 in the presence and absence of mitomycin C (MMC). By Western analysis, we also determined the expression of FAA and FAC, two FA disease gene products that together account for approximately 80% of FA. Unlike HSC72 cells, cells from the patients were resistant to MMC, and both FAA and FAC proteins were expressed at similar levels in all cell lines. There is an increasing recognition of clinical variability and perhaps genetic heterogeneity in Seckel syndrome. Our results demonstrate that cross-link sensitivity comparable to FA is not a uniform finding in patients with Seckel syndrome.
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keywords = breakage
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3/65. A microdeletion syndrome due to a 3-Mb deletion on 19q13.2--diamond-Blackfan anemia associated with macrocephaly, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation.

    We report on a boy with congenital pure red blood cell aplasia [diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA)] and severe congenital hypotonia, macrocephaly, hypertelorism, a broad and tall forehead, medial epicanthus, and facial hypotonia with mouth-breathing and drooling, an affable and out-going personality, and a general psychomotor retardation. These features show similarity to the phenotype of the X-linked FG syndrome. DBA was diagnosed at the age of 4 months, and the boy underwent treatment with transfusion and with prednisolone. He had a normal 46, XY karyotype, but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis to metaphase chromosomes revealed a 3-Mb deletion on 19q13.2. This chromosomal region has previously been linked to the DBA phenotype and one 19q13 microdeletion has been identified in a patient with DBA. This deletion coincides with the deletion reported here. We suggest that the complex phenotype of our patient, including both DBA and the associated features, represent a microdeletion syndrome.
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4/65. A microdeletion in 19q13.2 associated with mental retardation, skeletal malformations, and diamond-Blackfan anaemia suggests a novel contiguous gene syndrome.

    diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a constitutional red blood cell hypoplasia which may be associated with a variety of developmental abnormalities. A gene for DBA was recently mapped to chromosome 19q13.2 and subsequently cloned. Analysis of 19q marker alleles in dna of sporadic DBA cases showed de novo microdeletions in three patients also presenting with mental retardation. We have studied one of these patients and characterised the deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to extended dna fibres. The deletion was shown to be continuous over a 3.2 Mb region and the fibre-FISH analysis showed both chromosomal breakpoints. In combination, the clinical and molecular findings suggest a contiguous gene syndrome with a gene locus for mental retardation and, probably, skeletal malformations included in the deletion.
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5/65. Ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome.

    We report on a Mexican girl who developed cerebellar ataxia at age 3 years and pancytopenia at age 13 years. Cerebral computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy. Telangiectasias were not present; immunoglobulins and alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal. Cytogenetic studies showed no evidence of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, a normal rate of diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosome aberrations, but an increased response to bleomycin. The phenotype support the diagnosis of ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome, although monosomy of chromosome 7 was not found in bone marrow. The cytogenetic studies suggest that this may be a chromosomal instability disorder.
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keywords = chromosome
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6/65. Follow-up by cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in two children with Fanconi's anaemia in transformation.

    Results of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in patients with Fanconi's anaemia (FA) in transformation are very poor and only a few cases with favourable outcome have been reported. We present the follow-up of two FA-myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with monosomy 7 and complex karyotype implicating chromosome 1. Both relapsed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) following an allogeneic BMT from an HLA-identical brother. The patients showed clonal cytogenetic evolution coinciding with the leukaemic transformation. In one patient, fluorescence in situ hybridization using X and y chromosome probes detected an increase of host cells before clinical relapse. Both patients received a successful second allogeneic BMT from the same donor using a more intensive treatment regimen and remain in clinical and cytogenetic remission more than 3 years later.
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keywords = chromosome
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7/65. Bilateral microtia and cleft palate in cousins with diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    We report on maternal first cousins with bilateral microtia, micrognathia, cleft palate and hematologic findings of diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). The similarity of findings shared between our cases and a female reported by Hasan and Inoue [1993] suggests that this is a distinctive syndrome, rather than a chance association. DBA is a heterogeneous disorder, caused in about 25% of cases by heterozygous mutations in the RPS19 gene (DBA1). mutation analysis in our cases did not show an RPS19 mutation, and 2 alleles were present in each. Segregation analysis for DBA1 on chromosome 19 and DBA2 on 8p23 was not consistent with linkage. We conclude that this syndrome of microtia, cleft palate and DBA is not allelic to known DBA loci.
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8/65. Microcephalus, medulloblastoma and excessive toxicity from chemotherapy: an unusual presentation of Fanconi anaemia.

    Fanconi anaemia is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with different forms of clinical presentation. In this case the patient had suffered from microcephalus and delayed motor development from birth, but extensive investigation did not disclose any aetiology. At 3.5 y she developed a cerebellar medulloblastoma which was treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Following chemotherapy with alkylating agents she suffered from severe bone marrow aplasia which caused life-threatening infections, feeding problems and impaired kidney function. Fanconi anaemia was suspected, but it took 2 mo before the chromosome fragility test came out positive. From the moment diagnosis of Fanconi anaemia was made, no further active treatment was given. The patient's condition improved for some time, but she relapsed and died exactly 1 y after the first diagnosis of brain tumour. CONCLUSION: Fanconi anaemia must always be suspected in patients who experience excessive toxicity from chemotherapy regardless of the type of malignancy and congenital malformations.
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9/65. Episphalosomic syndrome : a MCA syndrome ressembling fanconi anemia, with increased baseline level of chromosome breaks but no hypersensivity to clastogens.

    We describe a child with facial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly, epicanthus, upturned nose, small ears), thumb hypoplasia, micropenis, jejunal atresia and moderate mental retardation with dysphasia. Cytogenetic workup revealed high spontaneous level of chromosomal aberrations (without specific pattern and no quadriradial figures) and borderline to absent hypersensitivity to mitomycin C, making a diagnosis of fanconi anemia unlikely. The child described here shares similarities with a small number of previous reports. We suggest to refer to this entity as episphalosomic syndrome. Episphalosomic syndrome shows some clinical overlap with fanconi anemia, but lacks its cytogenetic hallmark. The hematological complications of fanconi anemia have not been reported in this entity.
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keywords = chromosome
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10/65. aggressive periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Fanconi's anemia is an autosomal recessive disease associated with chromosomal breakage as well as pancytopenia, skin pigmentation, renal hypoplasia, cardiac defects, microcephaly, congenital malformations of the skeleton, hypogonadism, and increased risk of leukemia. The present report describes the periodontal clinical and microbiological status of an 11-year old male having Fanconi's anemia. methods: polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr type 1 virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was performed on paper-point samples pooled from either 3 periodontal sites with advanced attachment loss or 3 gingivitis sites with no clinical attachment loss. Anaerobic bacterial culture examination was performed on the pooled periodontitis sample. RESULTS: The patient suffered from pancytopenia, allergy, asthma, hearing impairment, and mental retardation. dentition consisted of 7 primary teeth, 11 erupted permanent teeth, and 14 unerupted permanent teeth. Most erupted teeth showed severe gingival inflammation with some gingival overgrowth and various degrees of periodontal attachment loss. Genomes of HCMV and HSV were detected in the pooled periodontitis sample and HCMV in the pooled gingivitis sample. The periodontitis sample but not the gingivitis sample revealed HCMV mRNA of major capsid protein, suggestive of active viral infection. The periodontitis sample also yielded actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (1.1% of total isolates), fusobacterium species (7.9%), campylobacter species (2.2%), peptostreptococcus micros (3.4%), and candida albicans (0.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Oral features of Fanconi's anemia may include increased susceptibility to periodontitis. It is likely that underlying host defense impairment coupled with periodontal infection by HCMV and A. actinomycetemcomitans contribute to the severe type of periodontitis associated with Fanconi's anemia.
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keywords = breakage
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