Cases reported "Fanconi Anemia"

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1/7. Detection of monosomy 7 in bone marrow by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A study of fanconi anemia patients and review of the literature.

    monosomy 7 is frequently found in the bone marrow of patients with fanconi anemia (FA), marrow myelodysplasia, or acute myelogenous leukemia and is associated with poor prognosis. In our laboratory, cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow from an FA patient found 2 of 30 cells with monosomy 7, but the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that 83 of 207 cells (40%) had monosomy 7. FISH was then used to analyze two earlier samples from the index case, neither of which had monosomy 7 as determined by standard cytogenetics. The FISH analysis determined that the first sample, taken 19 months earlier, had 8 of 200 cells (4%) with monosomy 7 and the second sample. taken 7 months later, contained 43 of 200 cells (21.5%) with monosomy 7. These results indicate a slow evolution toward monosomy 7 in the patient's bone marrow. Standard metaphase chromosome analysis represents only spontaneously dividing cells, leading us to hypothesize that FISH was detecting monosomy 7 in nondividing cells and that it might be useful in the early detection of abnormal clones. To test this hypothesis, FISH was performed on 13 bone marrow samples from nine patients with FA who did not exhibit monosomy 7 by cytogenetic analysis. monosomy 7 was detected in 3.44% of nuclei in FA patients and in 3% of nuclei in normal controls. To date, none of these nine FA patients have developed monosomy 7 or leukemia. They are being monitored by standard cytogenetics and by FISH to determine whether monosomy 7 develops and whether it can be detected by FISH prior to its detection by standard cytogenetics. As standard practice, we have adopted FISH analysis for monosomy 7 in all patients with FA.
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2/7. Co-occurrence of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma in an infant with Fanconi's anemia.

    We report the clinical, histologic, and genetic findings of concurrent neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma in an infant with Fanconi's anemia (FA). Both tumors had characteristic chromosomal aberrations. In particular, the neuroblastoma showed a gain of chromosome 17q, considered an important factor for prognosis. But untypical genetic changes were also seen suggesting that FA as a chromosomal instability syndrome causes new and untypical chromosomal variations in different tumors. The present case is unique because the simultaneous occurrence of a neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma with FA has not yet been described.
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3/7. The clinical and biological overlap between nijmegen breakage syndrome and fanconi anemia.

    fanconi anemia (FA), an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability syndrome, is characterized clinically by developmental abnormalities, growth retardation, progressive bone marrow failure, pancytopenia, and pronounced cancer predisposition. nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a related disorder that shares overlapping clinical features, principally, developmental delay, microcephaly, and cancer predisposition. The diagnosis has relied on chromosomal instability following exposure to dna cross-linking agents in FA and to ionizing radiation (IR) in NBS. We describe two patients who clinically had FA, but showed sensitivity to both dna cross-linking agents and ionizing radiation, and who were found to have a rare mutation in the NBS gene. The importance of genetic diagnosis with respect to treatment and prognosis is discussed.
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4/7. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver in a patient with fanconi anemia.

    A 9-year-old boy with fanconi anemia treated with oxymethalone, a synthetic androgen, died of intracerebral hemorrhage. At autopsy, the liver contained several adenomas and a large fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as phlebectatic peliosis hepatis. The 11 previously reported cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in fanconi anemia were not, apparently, of the fibrolamellar type, which has a better prognosis, occurs in children of both sexes, and generally is not associated with cirrhosis. The malignant potential of primary liver tumors associated with fanconi anemia as well as the nature of their relationship to fanconi anemia and to anabolic steroid therapy is discussed.
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5/7. retinoblastoma in association with the chromosome breakage syndromes Fanconi's anaemia and Bloom's syndrome: clinical and cytogenetic findings.

    Two children presenting with sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma and exhibiting a high degree of chromosome breakage were noted to have unusual facies, microcephaly and abnormal skin pigmentation. In the first child the pattern of both spontaneous and mitomycin-C-induced chromosome breakage was characteristic of Fanconi's anaemia although the degree of breakage was extreme. She also exhibited a striking increase in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage in G0 lymphocytes as measured by dicentric formation and increase in chromatid-type aberrations. She had a number of typical clinical features, including cafe-au-lait patches and abnormalities involving the kidney; however, she demonstrated neither the hypoplasia of radius and thumb nor the typical aplastic phase of this disorder. At age 22 months the child became anaemic with trilineage myelodysplasia, which was rapidly followed by the development of acute myeloblastic leukaemia. The early onset (at age 4 months) of retinoblastoma may have been associated with the underlying genomic instability. The second child exhibited a pattern of chromosome breakage characteristic of Bloom's syndrome, in addition to a moderate increase in damage induced by mytomycin-C. She had the typical stunted growth and malar hypoplasia of Bloom's syndrome although she did not demonstrate the frequently described erythematous 'butterfly rash' Although patients with Fanconi's anaemia and Bloom's syndrome are recognised to be at an increased risk of cancer, retinoblastoma has not previously been described in patients with either condition. We suggest that underlying recessive chromosome breakage syndromes may be underdiagnosed in paediatric cancer patients, with important implications for prognosis and genetic counselling.
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6/7. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of t(3; 12)(q26; p13): a recurring chromosomal abnormality involving the TEL gene (ETV6) in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    We have identified a new recurrent reciprocal translocation between chromosome 3 and 12 with breakpoints at bands 3q26 and 12p13, t(3;12)(q26;p13) in the malignant cells from five patients with acute transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome or blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. t(3;12)(q26;p13) appears as a rare but nonrandom event present in various myeloid leukemia subtypes, which is frequently associated with dysplasia of megakaryocytes, multilineage involvement, short duration of any blastic phase, and a very poor prognosis. Here, we report the molecular cytogenetic analysis of the t(3;12). fluorescence in situ hybridization results indicate that the 3q26 breakpoints are quite heterogeneous and occur 5' of MDS1, 3' of EVI1, or between MDS1 and EVI1. Our results are very similar to those observed in other 3q26 rearrangements in which breakpoints were shown to occur over considerable distances 5' and 3' of EVI1. fluorescence in situ hybridization investigations proved that, in three myelodysplastic syndrome cases with t(3;12)(q26;p13), the 12p 13 breakpoint occurred within the TEL gene.
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7/7. Oral squamous cell carcinoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for Fanconi anaemia.

    We report a case of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the buccal mucosa of an 18-year-old female patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 9 years after HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for Fanconi anaemia (FA). The case highlights the problems of malignant change in FA and also the increased risk of second malignancy after BMT. The literature is reviewed with regard to previous cases and the possible aetiology of tumour formation. A high index of suspicion to any epithelial lesion in FA is appropriate so that early diagnosis may lead to improved prognosis.
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