Cases reported "Fasciitis, Necrotizing"

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1/265. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis: a report of three cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a predominantly adult disorder, with bacterial infection of the soft tissue. In children, it is relatively rare and has a fulminant course with a high mortality rate. In the neonate, most cases of NF are attributable to secondary infection of omphalitis, balanitis, mammitis, postoperative complications, and fetal monitoring. The objective of this communication is to report 3 cases of neonatal NF and provide a literature review of this disorder. RESULTS: This review yielded 66 cases of neonatal NF. Only 3 cases were premature. There was no sex predilection and the condition rarely recurred. Several underlying conditions were identified that might have contributed to the development of neonatal NF. These included omphalitis in 47, mammitis in 5, balanitis in 4, fetal scalp monitoring in 2, necrotizing enterocolitis, immunodeficiency, bullous impetigo, and maternal mastitis in 1 patient each. The most common site of the initial involvement was the abdominal wall (n = 53), followed by the thorax (n = 7), back (n = 2), scalp (n = 2), and extremity (n = 2). The initial skin presentation ranged from minimal rash to erythema, edema, induration or cellulitis. The lesions subsequently spread rapidly. The overlying skin might later develop a violaceous discoloration, peau d'orange appearance, bullae, or necrosis. Crepitus was uncommon. Fever and tachycardia were frequent but not uniformly present. The leukocyte count of the peripheral blood was usually elevated with a shift to the left. thrombocytopenia was noted in half of the cases. hypocalcemia was rarely reported. Of the 53 wound cultures available for bacteriologic evaluation, 39 were polymicrobial, 13 were monomicrobial, and 1 was sterile. blood culture was positive in only 20 cases (50%). Treatment modalities included the use of antibiotics, supportive care, surgical debridement, and drainage of the affected fascial planes. Two of the 6 cases who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy died. The overall mortality rate was 59% (39/66). In 12 cases, skin grafting was required because of poor granulation formation or large postoperative skin defects among the survivors. CONCLUSION: Neonatal NF is an uncommon but often fatal bacterial infection of the skin, subcutaneous fat, superficial fascia, and deep fascia. It is characterized by marked tissue edema, rapid spread of inflammation, and signs of systemic toxicity. The wound cultures are predominantly polymicrobial and the location of initial involvement depends on the underlying etiologic factor. High index of suspicion, prompt aggressive surgery, appropriate antibiotics, and supportive care are the mainstays of management in the newborn infant with NF.
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2/265. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    A case of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is described in a 46-year-old woman with recent onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Deep-tissue infections are more common in SLE patients on high-dose corticosteroids, but, to our knowledge, this is the second case described in association with SLE. Although NF may initially be difficult to diagnose, the presence of marked systemic symptoms out of proportion to the local findings should suggest the correct diagnosis. NF diagnostic criteria, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
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3/265. diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in children.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but progressive soft tissue infection. This condition is difficult to recognize in the early phase, when it is often confused with cellulitis. We report the cases of four children with necrotizing fasciitis. The initial presentation in these cases was cellulitis. Fever and soft tissue swelling occurred within 24 h and spreading erythema within 4 to 12 h. Radiologic studies of the lesions showed soft tissue thickening. ultrasonography of the lesions demonstrated distorted, thickened fascia with fluid accumulation. Well-defined, loculated abscesses were demonstrated in two cases. Although typical dusky skin and purplish patches were not found in our cases, necrotizing fasciitis was strongly suspected on the basis of the clinical course and sonographic findings. ultrasonography also was used as a guide for aspiration of pus. Gram-stained smears and bacterial cultures yielded the pathogens. The choice of antibiotic therapy was made on the results of smears and culture. All patients survived after immediate surgical debridement, intensive antibiotic therapy, and aggressive wound care. In conclusion, ultrasonography provides a rapid and valuable diagnostic modality for necrotizing fasciitis. The pus obtained through sonographically guided aspiration for bacterial culture can allow identification of the pathogenic organisms.
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4/265. Infectious disease emergencies in primary care.

    Infectious disease emergencies can be described as infectious processes that, if not recognized and treated immediately, can lead to significant morbidity or mortality. These emergencies can present as common or benign infections, fooling the primary care provider into using more conservative treatment strategies than are required. This review discusses the pathophysiology, history and physical findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies for the following infectious disease emergencies: acute bacterial meningitis, ehrlichiosis, rocky mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, necrotizing soft tissue infections, toxic shock syndrome, food-borne illnesses, and infective endocarditis. Because most of the discussed infectious disease emergencies require hospital care, the primary care clinician must be able to judge when a referral to a specialist or a higher-level care facility is indicated.
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5/265. Necrotizing fascitis after injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoids: report of a case.

    A case report of a patient who underwent submucosal injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoids is presented. Subsequently developed necrotizing fascitis of the anorectum, perianal region, and scrotum necessitated emergency debridement and defunctioning colostomy. Postoperatively, the patient developed septicemia and renal failure requiring an extended hospital stay. Restoration of bowel continuity was done after three months. A brief review of known complications of this technique was made. It would appear that necrotizing fascitis can be added to this list.
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6/265. Necrotizing fasciitis: an uncommon consequence of pressure ulceration.

    pressure ulcers may occur in patients with chronic illnesses, especially in those who are bed-bound or chair-bound. Local measures usually suffice to allow primary ulcer healing and support skin grafting or tissue transfer reconstruction. On rare occasions, however, pressure ulcers may progress to invasive infection and necrosis of adjacent soft tissues, possibly leading to necrotizing fasciitis. Early recognition and aggressive medical and surgical therapy are required to halt disease progression and prevent patient mortality. Two cases are presented to describe the severity of this soft-tissue infection.
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7/265. Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis of the psoas muscle.

    Group A streptococci are common colonizers of the skin and upper respiratory tract. Serious infections of the respiratory tract as well as the skin and soft tissue are common. Highly virulent Group A streptococci are not infrequently the cause of invasive, life-threatening infections. Necrotizing fasciitis is uncommon and rarely the result of Group A streptococci. Necrotizing fasciitis of the psoas from Group A streptococci has been reported as a complication in patients with colon cancer perforation or peritonitis. We report the first case of Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis of the psoas muscle not associated with peritonitis or colon perforation.
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8/265. Necrotizing fasciitis of the pharynx following adenotonsillectomy.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare clinical entity in the head and neck region. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis following adenotonsillectomy in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl. The child presented in a septic state with impending airway compromise. Computed tomography (CT) showed massive soft tissue widening with air in the retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal and retromandibular spaces. Intraoperative exploration showed necrosis of the posterior pharyngeal wall from the skull base to the cricoid, with extension into the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces. Cultures from the debrided tissues grew two aerobes and three anaerobes. Management involved airway support, surgical debridement, broad spectrum antibiotic coverage and nutritional support. The patient ultimately developed nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal stenosis requiring tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube placement. This case report highlights an extremely rare complication of adenotonsillectomy.
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9/265. Acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections in the elderly: report of a case.

    A case of acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) in an extremely elderly woman (98 years-old) is reported. She was admitted to our hospital with a history of increasing pain localized in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed appendicolithiasis and periappendiceal fluid. An appendectomy and closure of the perforated cecum was performed. On the 5th post-operative day, the patient developed skin erythemas and crepitation in the right lower quadrant. An exploration and drainage of the recent operative incision was performed under the diagnosis of NSTIs. Despite the declining overall incidence of appendicitis, it has been increasing among the elderly. The elderly patients are associated with underlying defects in immune function. NSTIs, which are characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis of soft tissue, comprise a spectrum of disease ranging from necrosis of the skin to life-threatening infections. The most common etiology of NSTIs was post-operative infections of the abdominal wall, which primarily occurred after operations with extensive fecal contamination. NSTIs are no longer a rare post-operative complication in the elderly and initial treatment should be selected according to the condition of the patient.
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10/265. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: a case report.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection characterized by cutaneous necrosis, suppurative fasciitis, vascular thrombosis and extreme systemic toxicity. Involvement of head and neck structures is rare, but occur most frequently in patients with diabetes and chronic alcoholism. Once initiated, the disease progresses rapidly and diffusely, involving adjacent fascial spaces. Necrotizing fasciitis may also extend to the cervical viscera, mediastinum and anterior chest wall. A 65-year-old chronic alcoholic man, with long-standing diabetes and liver cirrhosis under irregular treatment is described. The patient developed a deep neck infection from a buccal abscess after a local incision. The infection then extended to an orocutaneous fistula and deep neck superficial and middle layer fascias, with necrotizing fasciitis. Management requires early recognition, high doses of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, early surgical drainage and radical debridement of necrotic tissue. The disease carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly.
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