Cases reported "Fasciitis"

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11/133. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis of dental origin.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal, acute bacterial infection characterized by extensive fascial and subcutaneous tissue necrosis. Four factors that contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of necrotizing fasciitis are: 1) delayed treatment, due to difficulty in recognizing the condition; 2) inappropriate treatment; 3) host debilitation; and 4) a polymicrobial infection.
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12/133. Toxic shock-like syndrome.

    Invasive group A streptococcal infection has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. We cared for a man with the full-blown syndrome in whom many features of toxic shock syndrome were present, including profound hypotension and renal failure. The diagnostic similarities of toxic shock syndrome and the toxic shock-like syndrome caused by group A streptococcus could have led to inappropriate treatment. Successful therapy in our patient included high doses initially of broad-spectrum antibiotics, repeated operative debridement of the lower leg (the affected limb), and ultimately, reconstructive surgery consisting primarily of split-thickness skin grafts. The reemergence of invasive streptococcal infections may relate to changes either in virulence factors of the causative streptococcus or in exotoxins elaborated by this microorganism. A causative relationship between an exotoxin produced by group A streptococcus and the toxic shock-like syndrome has not yet been established.
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13/133. Necrotizing fasciitis of the eyelids.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a destructive soft tissue infection that rarely involves the eyelids. Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the eyelids are described. Necrotizing fasciitis was preceded by minor forehead soft tissue trauma in two cases and occurred spontaneously in one. In two patients necrotizing fasciitis was bilateral and involved both the upper and lower eyelids. review of these cases, in addition to 18 cases previously reported in the English literature, reveals a predominance in females, preceding minor local soft tissue trauma, frequent bilateral involvement, and an association with alcohol abuse and diabetes. In all of the patients, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were cultured from the wound. Early recognition of the disease process, prompt surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue, aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and delayed skin grafting combine to minimize morbidity.
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14/133. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a mixed infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with a characteristic clinical and pathological appearance. Early radical surgical excision of all affected tissue is the treatment of choice. In a series of 19 patients with necrotizing fasciitis, bacteriological assessment in 15 confirmed the mixed nature of the infection, with bacteroides sp. isolated from ten patients. All 12 patients who underwent radical surgical excision survived. A subgroup of patients was identified in whom the appearance of necrotizing fasciitis in the abdomen or perineum was indicative of more extensive disease in the retroperitoneal tissues. Surgical resection of all affected tissue was not feasible in these cases and the outcome was uniformly fatal, giving an overall mortality rate for the series of 37 per cent.
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15/133. Necrotizing fasciitis in two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, soft tissue infection, and is an unusual condition in children. The cornerstone of therapy is prompt, aggressive surgical treatment. Despite vigorous treatment, mortality rates are high. We report the occurrence of necrotizing fasciitis in two children during the granulocytopenic phase of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing fasciitis in these two children was made more difficult by their underlying disease and its chemotherapy. The successful treatment of their infections relied on a multimodality approach. Aggressive surgical debridement was the mainstay of therapy. Adjuvant therapy was vital to the successful outcomes and included meticulous wound care, intravenous hyperalimentation, appropriate antibiotics, and granulocyte transfusions.
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16/133. Mediastinal and thoracic complications of necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck.

    Mediastinal and thoracic extension of head and neck infections are rare but occur even in the modern antibiotic era. Early intervention is paramount to successful clinical outcome. 111Indium-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scan, a new imaging modality, appears to play a role in complementing computed tomographic (CT) findings, demonstrating early extension of disease, and following therapeutic efficacy. Together, the CT scan and WBC scan aid in directing early intervention and extent of surgery in this disease of high-potential mortality. We report 3 cases of deep head and neck infection complicated by mediastinal extension, including mediastinitis, pericardial effusion, and tamponade, empyema, and respiratory failure. Early surgical intervention included neck drainage, tracheostomy, thoracotomy, and pericardiotomy. While usually associated with greater than 50% mortality, all of the patients in this series survived. Based on our experience, we recommend prompt aggressive surgical debridement in treating mediastinal complications resulting from head and neck infections.
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17/133. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis--a complication of poor cord hygiene: report of three cases.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially lethal syndrome which rarely affects Occurrence in the neonatal period is uncommon, although it has been estimated that up to 50% of reported paediatric cases involve the neonate. Two previous reports have associated the syndrome with neonatal omphalitis. Three cases seen in the University of benin teaching Hospital are presented, with poor umbilical cord stump hygiene being the immediate predisposing/associated condition. Two of the infants had Fourier's gangrene and the third developed gangrene of the anterior abdominal wall.
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18/133. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by salmonella enteritidis.

    A 57-year-old immunocompromized female developed a necrotizing fasciitis with sepsis a few days after abdominal complaints and diarrhoea. Surgery was performed because of progressive worsening of the patient's situation and during surgery the decision was made to perform an amputation. After surgery the patient was brought to the intensive care department for a few days. She recovered from her sepsis within a few days. Cultures showed salmonella enteritidis.
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19/133. Necrotizing fasciitis rapidly diagnosed by aspiration cytology.

    A case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci is reported. A 66-year-old man was admitted because of pain and swelling in the right buttock. Rapid application of aspiration cytology made it possible to diagnose necrotizing fasciitis with bacterial infection. Unfortunately, however, the patient died of cardiac arrest due to hyperpotassemia 11 h after admission. mortality from this disease is most often related to failure in recognizing it early. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment is mandatory in order to save the patients' life. We emphasize the usefulness of rapid aspiration cytology, despite the unfortunate outcome in the present case.
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20/133. Recurrent necrotizing fasciitis of the vulva. A case report.

    Necrotizing fasciitis most often occurs in the context of prior trauma or surgery. Predisposing medical conditions include diabetes mellitus, arteriosclerosis, obesity, hypertension and prior irradiation. De novo occurrence in the vulva, in the absence of prior injury, surgery or irradiation, has been reported rarely. Necrotizing fasciitis of the vulva in the diabetic patient may have an insidious onset but requires an early diagnosis and aggressive surgical episode of fasciitis occurred in an obese, diabetic woman. Aggressive, wide excision of all infected vulvar, mons and thigh tissue, followed by aggressive medical and surgical postoperative care, resulted in minimal morbidity. Prompt recognition and aggressive care are required to treat this condition.
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