Cases reported "Fat Necrosis"

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1/20. Lipomembranous fat necrosis in three cases of testicular torsion.

    AIMS: To describe for the first time a lesion termed lipomembranous fat necrosis (LFN) in three patients with spermatic cord torsion. methods AND RESULTS: We reviewed 386 testes and their epididymides and spermatic cords which had been removed for testicular infarction. For the three cases showing LFN, a battery of histochemical tests (including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), orcein, sudan black and Perls stains) was applied and clinical histories and laboratory data were also investigated. Findings were similar in the three specimens. The testes showed a central group of necrotic seminiferous tubules which were surrounded by granulation tissue consisting of macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and fibrous connective tissue at the periphery of the lesion. The spermatic cord showed thrombosed veins surrounded by fat necrosis showing cystic cavities which were bounded by wavy hyaline membranes. These stained with sudan black, PAS (before and after diastase digestion) and orcein and presented yellowish-green autofluorescence. CONCLUSIONS: Lipomembranous fat necrosis of the spermatic cord is a distinctive entity which seems to be related to spermatic cord torsion and the differential diagnosis of which should be established with regard to the presence of parasites, sclerosing lipogranuloma and granuloma evoked by rupture of a testicular prosthesis.
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2/20. Pancreatic pseudocystportal vein fistula manifests as residivating oligoarthritis, subcutaneous, bursal and osseal necrosis: a case report and review of literature.

    Pseudocyst is a common complication of pancreatitis. Pseudocyst may rupture into the surrounding organs. rupture into the portomesenteric vein is extremely rare with only seven cases being described in the English literature. pancreatic portal vein fistula is very difficult to verify. The aim of this study was to view the diagnostic methods of pancreatic portal vein fistula and to describe the results of high-dose corticosteroid treatment to our knowledge for the first time. We report here a case of pancreatic portomesenteric vein fistula that was manifest as subcutaneous fat necrosis, bursal necrosis, intramedullary aseptic bone necrosis and recidivating oligoarthritis. The literature of this unusual complication is reviewed. The results of high-dose corticosteroid treatment are also described. In patients with recidivating oligoarthritis, subcutaneous, bursal or osseal necrosis a pancreatic process should be included in the differential diagnosis even in cases of no abdominal signs or symptoms or previous abdominal history. Operative exploration of the pancreas should be performed in the early phase of the disease. To diminish the ongoing extrapancreatic manifestations after the closure of the fistula massive corticosteroid treatment may be attempted although the role of this therapy remains controversial.
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keywords = bone
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3/20. Studies on subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    biopsy specimens from the skin and subcutaneous fat tissue of four cases with neonatal subcutaneous fat necrosis were made and investigated by light and electron microscopy at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, and 5 months (Case 2) from the onset of the disease. Three stages of ultrastructural change of fat cells were observed. The evolution of crystal formation in the fat cells was seen and phagocytosis of crystals and fat droplets by macrophages and foreign-body giant cells was also noted. In the light microscope accumulation of calcium concretions in the spaces between and inside the fat cells was found. In the electron microscope we detected foci of highly electron-dense granules, which were similar in distribution and structure to calcium salts stained with the von Kossa method. Changes in small and medium size blood vessels were observed.
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4/20. Pancreatic-portal vein fistula with disseminated fat necrosis treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    I have reported the case of a 62-year-old man with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and a rare pseudocyst-portal vein fistula. Even though he experienced no abdominal symptoms, he had severe metastatic fat necrosis manifested as subcutaneous fat necrosis, polyarthritis, medullary bone necrosis, and mental status changes. Remote tissue destruction continued until relief was gained by pancreaticoduodenectomy and repair of the necrotic portal vein. Disseminated fat necrosis is a rare syndrome that can be the only presenting feature in patients with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Early recognition and treatment of the underlying pancreatic disease may decrease the high morality rate associated with this syndrome.
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keywords = bone
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5/20. Pancreatic carcinoma with polyarthritis, fat necrosis, and high serum lipase and trypsin activity.

    A 46 year old white man presented with subcutaneous and intramedullary fat necrosis, destructive polyarthritis, and osteolytic bone lesions, complicating a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the tail of the pancreas with metastases in the liver and omentum. There was a 100-fold increase in serum lipase and trypsin activity. His condition deteriorated rapidly, was characterised by rapid tumour growth, formation of ascites, a 20 kg weight loss, extensive subcutaneous fat necrosis, and fistula formation in the left calf. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil 300 mg/m2 on days 1-5 and doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 and cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1, every three weeks, was well tolerated and resulted in rapid clinical improvement. After three courses of treatment a partial remission was seen and after seven courses further improvement occurred with a return to normal of serum lipase and trypsin activity. One year after starting chemotherapy the tumour relapsed but responded again to chemotherapy (epirubicin 40 mg/m2 and carboplatin 300 mg/m2 on day 1, every three weeks).
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keywords = bone
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6/20. Disseminated fat necrosis: a rehabilitation challenge.

    Disseminated fat necrosis (DFN) is a rare complication of pancreatic disease characterized by subcutaneous nodules, visceral effusions, osseous intramedullary fat necrosis, and arthritis. The rehabilitation of a 33-year-old patient with DFN is described here. The patient had a history of alcoholic pancreatitis for which she underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy. Three months later she developed subcutaneous nodules and migratory polyarthralgias. The diagnosis of DFN as the etiology of her arthritis was confirmed by synovial fluid analysis; in addition, magnetic resonance imaging of her long bones revealed multiple marrow infarcts. She was nonambulatory and required assistance with transfers because of severe joint pain. Treatment included local ice, prednisone, methadone, instruction on joint preservation and proper body mechanics, and ambulation with weight-bearing as tolerated with an assistive device. At the patient's discharge, her joint inflammation was clinically improved but not resolved, and she was independent in transfers and ambulation with a walker for short distances. Despite ongoing inflammation, functional improvement was accomplished through a rehabilitation program emphasizing partial weight-bearing ambulation rather than strengthening exercises.
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keywords = bone
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7/20. Intraosseous fat necrosis associated with acute pancreatitis: MR imaging.

    Necrosis of fatty bone marrow, caused by lipolytic enzymes, is a rare complication of several pancreatic disorders. A 44-year-old man with polyarthritis, subcutaneous nodules, and osteolysis associated with alcoholic pancreatitis underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knees. In the marrow of the distal femur and proximal tibia, the images showed multiple foci of abnormal signal intensity compatible with the diagnosis of fat necrosis secondary to acute pancreatitis. Because MR imaging can depict abnormalities in fatty marrow that seem to precede necrosis, this modality may add early diagnostic information.
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keywords = bone
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8/20. Solitary increased tibial uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate unmasking pancreatic tumor-related medullary fat necrosis.

    Pancreatic inflammation and tumors can induce various systemic lesions of steatonecrosis. We report here the case of a 73-year-old woman presenting a painful left leg. Roentgenograms and tomograms of the left tibia were normal. Radionuclide bone scan showed diffuse increased uptake in the whole tibia and a CT scan of the same region demonstrated an unusual pattern of bone tumor. Tibial biopsy revealed intra medullary steatonecrosis and led to the discovery of a pancreatic carcinoma.
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keywords = bone
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9/20. subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn with emphasis on ultrastructural studies.

    The morphologic examination of neonatal subcutaneous fat necrosis is reported. Subcutaneous nodules after prolonged labor and asphyxia appeared in the skin of the back and neck. biopsy was performed at 16 days. The infants' general state did not change and the nodules spontaneously regressed. light microscopically focal necroses of the subcutaneous adipose tissue were present, with granulation tissue. Electron microscopy revealed complex material replacing the necrotic fat cells. Two types of crystals could be observed: short, rectangular ones irregularly arranged and long, needle-shaped ones, parallel or radial in arrangement. The dissolved lipid crystals were surrounded by membranes that probably arose from the necrotic fat cells. The crystals passed the cytoplasm membrane of the macrophages. giant cells arose from macrophages, partly by fusion of the cells and partly by amitosis.
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10/20. Intraosseous fat necrosis and metaphyseal osteonecrosis in a patient with chronic pancreatitis: MR imaging and CT scanning.

    Necrosis of fatty bone marrow is an unusual complication of several pancreatic disorders. We describe a patient with polyarthritis, sterile subcutaneous abscess and osteolysis arising during the course of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. MR images of one knee showed multiple foci of abnormal signal intensity within the marrow of the distal femur and proximal tibia, consistent with intraosseous fat necrosis. CT scans showed significant changes in the cancellous bone in these areas compatible with metaphyseal osteonecrosis.
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keywords = bone
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