Cases reported "Feminization"

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1/12. Progestin binding in testes from three siblings with the syndrome of male pseudohermaphroditism with testicular feminization.

    We have found a specific binding protein for synthetic progestins 6,7-[3H]methyltrienolone (R1881) and 17,21-dimethyl-19-norpregna-4,9-diene-3,20-dione (R5020) and in the testis cytosol from three "sisters" with the complete form of the testicular feminization syndrome. The binding component sediments in the 8S region of sucrose gradients. It is saturable. The apparent affinity constant (Ka) for R5020 was determined in two cases and found to be 1.8 and 0.6 X 10(8) M-1. The number of binding sites calculated from Scatchard plots is relatively high: 572 and 826 fmol/mg protein. Competition studies indicate that this putative receptor is specific for natural and synthetic progestins but not for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and cortisol. Similar progestin binding could not be found in normal human and rat testes.
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2/12. Mechanism of feminization in primary liver cancer.

    Primary liver cancer occasionally presents with feminization. The mechanism is unknown. We studied a young man with primary liver cancer associated with feminization that disappeared after removal of the tumor. Before operation, the serum estrone level was markedly (1113 pg per milliliter) and estradiol and estriol levels were slightly elevated. Human placental lactogen was also increased (0.52 microng per milliliter). luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels were normal, and testosterone reduced. Beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin were not detected in the serum. in vitro assay of tumor tissue showed estrogenic activity and high levels of these subunits. With a reversed isotope dilution technic with crystallization to constant specific activity, we showed the tumor tissue to convert dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone to estrone and estradiol. Production of beta subunits of chorionic gonadotropin and raised serum levels of placental lactogen provided further evidence that the tumor was functioning as trophoblastic tissue.
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3/12. Familial adrenal feminization probably due to increased steroid aromatization.

    5/10 members of a North African family (father, 2 male and 2 female siblings) had gynaecomastia, early growth and short final stature. The 8-year-old propositus had advanced bone age, facial acne, gynaecomastia, pubic hair and prepubertal testicular volume. Basal oestrone (E1) was elevated (670 pmol/l) and increased with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 826 pmol/l). After human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation testosterone (T) responded normally whereas E1 and oestradiol (E2) remained unchanged. ACTH-dependent adrenal feminization was confirmed by a transient reduction of breast tissue following dexamethasone or cypropterone acetate treatment. testolactone increased T/E2 (from 5.6 to 20.3) and A/E1 (from 3.4 to 31.4) ratios and temporarily reduced the breast tissue. In conclusion, this is a familial type of adrenal feminization with increased adrenal androgen aromatization. This is the first time that male-to-male and male-to-female transmission has been reported.
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4/12. Adrenocorticotropin-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: an unusual cause of Cushing's syndrome.

    Inappropriate ACTH secretion with bilateral diffuse or macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome. This report describes a patient with Cushing's syndrome and feminization due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. A 47-yr-old black man presented with Cushingoid features, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, impotence, and gynecomastia. Urinary cortisol and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion were 94 nmol/mmol creatinine (normal, less than 32) and 5.8 mumol/mmol creatinine (normal, 0.6-3.6), respectively. Both decreased by less than 30% after administration of dexamethasone (8 and 16 mg/day), and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion did not increase after metyrapone (750 mg, orally, every 4 h for six doses). plasma ACTH was undetectable (less than 1 pmol/L) and was not stimulated by administration of metyrapone or ovine CRH. serum testosterone was 5.2 nmol/L (normal, 7-30), FSH was 5 U/L (normal, 3-18), LH was 2.8 U/L (normal, 1.5-9.2), and estrone was 767 pmol/L (normal, 55-240). Both adrenal glands were enlarged, with a total weight of 86 g (normal, 8-10), and contained multiple nodules (diameter, greater than 0.5 cm) composed of two active cell types, one of which was also observed between the nodules. Cushing's syndrome with feminization due to ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is an unusual process of unknown etiology that should be included with the other known causes of Cushing's syndrome.
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5/12. Estrogen-secreting adrenal tumor responsive to ACTH: localization by adrenal venous sampling.

    In a 48-year-old man with gynecomastia but no other signs of feminization, routine evaluation revealed only minimally elevated serum estrogens. The diagnosis of an estrogen-secreting adrenal tumor was suggested by CT and confirmed by adrenal venous sampling. This tumor was found to be ACTH-responsive. Results in this patient are compared with those in normal volunteers, in whom adrenal venous sampling failed to localize estrogen secretion and in whom ACTH did not increase estrogens.
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6/12. An unbalanced autosomal translocation (7;9) associated with feminization.

    A newborn girl presented with generalized mild dysmorphic features. She later developed heart failure and hydrocephalus, and died aged 5 months. Chromosome analysis revealed an unbalanced reciprocal translocation (with partial trisomy for half of the long arm of 7 and partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 9) and normal but inappropriate sex chromosomes (XY). The karyotype (46,XY,-9, der(9),t(7;9)(q31.1;p23)pat) was inferred from her father who was a balanced carrier: 46, XY,(7;9)(q31.1;p23). The evidence of the present case, when considered with that of previous reports, suggests that deletion of genes on the 9p may have caused the feminization and therefore that the 9p region may contain genes which are important in the normal process of testis formation.
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7/12. Testicular feminization syndrome. An unusual case with high estrogen levels.

    In an unusual case of testicular feminization, the patient had a high estrogen and low testosterone level. The source of this female hormone excess may have been functioning gonadal stroma of either female or male derivation. All other aspects of the case were consistent with classic examples of the syndrome.
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8/12. feminization in hepatocellular carcinoma corrected by chemotherapy: a case report.

    A 17-year-old boy with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and feminization became asymptomatic after administration of antineoplastic agents. serum estradiol level, urine estrogens, and tumor estrogen receptors were changed after the treatment. achievement of partial remission resulted in normalization of the serum sex hormone profile and disappearance of the feminization in spite of the presence of residual tumor. Thus, serum hormone levels alone cannot be used as tumor markers for control of therapy. This suggests that chemotherapy may have altered the biological behavior of the tumor, which resulted in loss of its ability to synthesize estrogen estrogen receptors.
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9/12. Feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma with Cushing's syndrome and pseudohyperparathyroidism.

    A patient with adrenocortical carcinoma had three major endocrine abnormalities attributable directly to the tumor: hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome), hyperestrogenism (feminization), and hypercalcemia (pseudohyperparathyroidism). There were higher levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone in venous effluent from the tumor or its abdominal metastases compared to that found in the veins draining the parathyroid glands. This, together with the presence of normal parathyroid glands on autopsy, established the diagnosis of pseudohyperparathyroidism as the cause of hypercalcemia in this patient.
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10/12. Estrogen-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A light and electron microscopic study.

    A case of adrenocortical carcinoma with feminization seen in a man aged 35, is reported. The levels of estron (E1) and estradiol (E2) in the venous blood draining the tumor were high, and it was confirmed by in vitro assay of tumor cells taken from the primary tumor of the left adrenal gland that the tumor produced estrone. The light microscopic examination demonstrated that the primary tumor was composed of mixture of large cells with pleomorphic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm and uniform cells with ovoid nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. The electron microscopic examination on the latter cells revealed numerous large and irregularly shaped mitochondria with mostly tubular or lamellar and occasionally vesicular cristae and electron-dense matrix, well-developed smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm. However, lipid droplets and lysosomes or lipofuscin granules were scanty. From these findings, it is suggested that cells of the present tumor have characteristics of those in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex as well as in the fetal cortex, and the functional property of this tumor is well correlated with its morphological features.
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