Cases reported "Femur Head Necrosis"

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1/56. Changes on magnetic resonance images after traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    SUMMARY: We describe two cases of avascular necrosis after traumatic fracture of the femoral neck. The size and signal intensity of the necrotic areas changed on follow-up magnetic resonance images. magnetic resonance imaging is suitable for showing resolvable changes that radiographic study cannot demonstrate during the clinical course.
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2/56. Pathological fracture of the femoral neck as the first manifestation of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    We describe two cases of pathological fracture of the femoral neck occurring as the first manifestation of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). No abnormal findings suggestive of ONFH were identified on the radiographs for either of the patients, and the fractures occurred like spontaneous fractures without any trauma or unusually increased activity. The patients' medical history, age, and good bone quality suggested ONFH as a possible underlying cause of the fractures. If we had not suspected ONFH as a predisposing condition, these minimally displaced fractures might have been fixed internally with multiple pins, and this would have led to nonunion or collapse of the femoral head. To avoid inappropriate treatment, ONFH should be considered as a predisposing factor in pathological fractures of the femoral neck.
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3/56. Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated with transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy combined with vascularized iliac bone grafting.

    A 49-year-old Japanese man who had non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head with a wide necrotic lesion received transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy combined with vascularized iliac bone grafting. After the bone graft (6 x 1.5 cm) was collected, the femoral head was anteriorly rotated by 90 degrees. A bone tunnel of 1.2 cm in diameter was prepared on the necrotic lesion adjacent to the intact area from the anterior part of the femoral neck to inside the femoral head. The bone graft was trimmed to the size of this bone tunnel, and inserted up to immediately below the articular surface. In the monitoring using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the low signal-intensity area between the bone graft and intact area had disappeared, and a high signal-intensity area on the weight-bearing portion of the femoral head had extended. With modifications on the insertion point of the bone graft, transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy combined with vascularized iliac bone graft would be a useful means to preserve the femoral head in large non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
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4/56. fatigue subcapital fracture of the femur after the removal of the hip plate in transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy.

    We report two cases of fatigue subcapital fracture of the femur after the removal of the hip plate used for fixation in transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for osteonecrosis. Two patients, a 42-year-old man and a 43-year-old man, underwent transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy, and bony union was achieved in both patients. However, fatigue subcapital fracture of the femur occurred in both patients 15 months after the removal of the hip plate. Transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy greatly changes the trabecular bone structure in the proximal femur, thus affecting the strength of the femoral neck. Therefore, for the trabecular bone to be remodeled and for the proximal femur to achieve sufficient strength, a sufficient period is necessary after complete bony union has occurred in the transtrochanteric lesion, before removal of the plate.
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5/56. Can ischemic hip disease cause rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis? A case report.

    Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head (AONFH) usually goes through the four stages described by Arlet and Ficat: normal radiographs, heterogeneity and sclerosis of the femoral head, subchondral fracture with an individualized sequestrum, and secondary osteoarthritis. Arlet and Ficat individualized a specific pattern of AONFH which they called ischemic hip disease, in which cartilage damage seen as concentric joint space loss precedes the bony alterations. Although radiological and pathological studies of ischemic hip disease have been published, no clinical data are available. We report the case of a 65-year-old man admitted for a 1-month history of severe hip symptoms with concentric joint space loss but no osteophytes. Laboratory tests and examination of fluid aspirated from the hip ruled out septic arthritis and inflammatory hip disease. Two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies done 1 month apart showed diffuse edema involving not only the femoral head but also the neck and trochanter, as well as major synovial hypertrophy. This atypical MRI appearance prompted synovial membrane and pertrochanteric core biopsies, which showed reactive synovitis and stage IV osteonecrosis, respectively. The pain, disability, and joint space loss worsened. Total hip arthroplasty was performed 1 month after the biopsy. Histological examination of the femoral head showed diffuse necrosis; no evidence of another condition was found on histological sections of the entire synovial membrane. This case corroborates the hypotheses put forward by Lequesne that some cases of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis may be ascribable to ischemia.
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6/56. Stem fracture after hemiresurfacing for femoral head osteonecrosis.

    The ideal treatment of the young patient with a large necrotic segment in the femoral head remains controversial. Hemiresurfacing is a reasonable option in the young patient with a large osteonecrotic lesion that has collapsed. Complications reported after hemiresurfacing include implant loosening, femoral neck fracture, acetabular wear, and persistent pain. We present a case of stem fracture after hemiresurfacing in a young patient with femoral head osteonecrosis.
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7/56. femoral neck fractures in young adults.

    In 17 patients with femoral neck fractures who were between 15 and 40 years old the incidence of aseptic necrosis in patients followed more than 2 years was 18.7 per cent. The fracture was associated with other severe injuries in 40 per cent of the cases, probably reflecting the level of violence necessary to induce the fracture in young adults. Two of the 7 fractures treated with large-bore internal fixatives required secondary procedures to correct fracture displacement (this was not a complication with threaded devices). While the incidence of aseptic necrosis is no higher than that in other adult series, subsequent degenerative changes may supervene in many femoral neck fractures in this age group.
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8/56. Transient osteoporosis of the hip misdiagnosed as osteonecrosis on magnetic resonance imaging.

    A 34-year-old man developed idiopathic, bilateral, asynchronous transient osteoporosis of the hip. The symptoms included hip pain with activity, and roentgenography revealed osteoporosis of the femoral head and neck. Radionuclide bone scans showed increased uptake of the involved femoral head. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) early after the onset of right-side symptoms was characterized by decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and patchy areas of increased and decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images; this was initially interpreted as being consistent with osteonecrosis. Despite evaluation by multiple physicians and imaging methods, including MRI, the correct diagnosis of transient osteoporosis of the hip was delayed until after resolution of the syndrome. Transient osteoporosis of the hip should be included in the differential diagnosis of hip pain.
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9/56. Gunshot injury of the proximal femoral physis.

    A 12-year-old boy sustained a gunshot injury to the proximal femur. The bullet hole passed through the femoral neck very close to the proximal femoral physis (Ogden type 8 physeal injury) without neurovascular injury. The boy was treated conservatively with antibiotics and bedrest. Nine months later, avascular necrosis of the femoral head (Ratliff type 2) and limb shortening of 2 cm had developed. For this reason, a valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy was performed 1 year after the injury. However, only partial revascularization of a necrotic femoral head segment occurred. For the residual necrotic segment in the weight-bearing area and progressive shortening of the femur 3.5 years after injury, a valgus-extension intertrochanteric osteotomy was performed and remodelling of the necrotic fragment done. The boy is now over 19 years old. He has only minimal pain after sports activity and a slightly limited range of movement. The limb shortening is 1.5 cm.
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10/56. Free vascularized fibula graft for a cystic femoral head and neck lesion in the west indies.

    A case is presented of an 18-year-old athlete with fibrous dysplasia of the femoral neck and head. The approach was by joint plastic and orthopaedic teams, which minimized operating time and allowed the option of vascular bone grafting. The lesion was curetted through a greater trochanteric window and the defect reconstructed with a free vascularized fibula graft with excellent result. Weight bearing was achieved in six months and there was minimal donor site morbidity. We believe the free vascularized fibula graft to be a reconstructive option, in difficult orthopaedic problems, facilitated by microsurgery and there is immense benefit of a joint effort between the orthopaedic and plastic surgical teams.
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