Cases reported "Femur Head Necrosis"

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1/368. osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy.

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman suddenly complained of bilateral hip pain 2 weeks before delivery. She was delivered of triplets by Caesarean section. She had been treated with human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hMG-hCG) before pregnancy. Radiograms of the hip joint showed collapse of the femoral heads bilaterally. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a band pattern of low signal intensity for both hips on T1- and T2-weighted images. She had no history of steroid therapy or alcohol abuse. osteonecrosis of the femoral heads bilaterally associated with pregnancy was confirmed. pathology of the femoral head showed typical empty lacunae and necrosis of the trabecula. ( info)

2/368. malpractice and avascular necrosis: legal outcomes.

    Every physician, but particularly specialists, have reason to be concerned about medical legal issues. Avascular necrosis has been established as a possible serious complication of steroid treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Two specific Canadian cases illustrating the sequence of medical history, time, expert testimony and legal outcomes are presented. Awards plus costs in the order of $1 million or more were the result of these legal proceedings. The courts stated the major factors in finding liability against doctors were the failure to show the patient had been fully informed of treatment options. There was considerable weight given to expert testimony and the patient recollection of events to support their contentions. Adequate contemporaneous record keeping was absent to contradict evidence of the patients. The judges in both illustrative examples leaned heavily on Supreme Court of canada guidelines whereby the patient must be informed at all stages of the medical process. ( info)

3/368. Intertrochanteric osteotomy for osteonecrosis.

    Intertrochanteric osteotomy is an effective surgical option in certain well-selected cases of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The size of the lesion on plain radiographs in the anteroposterior and lateral projections is a critical determinant of success. The best candidates are patients with less than 50% of head involved in the necrotic sector. Collapse of the femoral head is not a contraindication to osteotomy. Location of the necrotic sector determines whether varus, valgus, flexion, or extension are most appropriate alone or in combination. ( info)

4/368. The prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of extension of osteonecrosis in the femoral head.

    In about 50% of cases, osteonecrosis of the femoral head is known to occupy more than one site. There is controversy as to whether a single focus may increase in size. We have reviewed 606 consecutive femoral heads which had been surgically removed for osteonecrosis. Extension of osteonecrosis was observed in only two (0.3%) and was confirmed histopathologically by the enlargement of the necrotic segment beyond the repair zone formed for the primary necrosis into the adjacent, previously uninvolved bone. In both cases, the necrotic regions were wedge-shaped and occupied over 80% of the femoral head. It appears that an increase in size is extremely rare and that osteonecrosis is due to a single event. Our findings may be of value in assessing the use of joint-salvage procedures for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. ( info)

5/368. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis after septic arthritis of the hip in an adolescent: report of a case.

    Septic arthritis of the hip must be managed promptly to avoid the serious complications associated with the condition. In the case reported here, the diagnosis was delayed and was complicated by a slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The patient, an adolescent boy previously in good health, presented with a 2-week history of hip pain and systemic illness. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and was managed by incision and drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two weeks later he presented with a subcutaneous abscess and a slipped capital femoral epiphysis, which was pinned in situ. There was a 2.5-cm leg-length discrepancy. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head subsequently developed leaving the boy with a permanent disability. ( info)

6/368. Cyclosporin A mono-therapy in nephrotic syndrome with contra-indication of steroid therapy.

    We describe three cases of nephrotic syndrome with a contra-indication for steroid therapy successfully treated with cyclosporin A (CsA). A 21-year-old man with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) complicated by necrosis of the femoral head, and a 34-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man with minimal change disease (MCD) complicated by psychogenic reaction and diabetes mellitus, respectively, were given CsA at initial dosages of 3.8-5.0 mg/kg/day and immediately remitted completely. However, two of these patients suffered relapses when CsA was tapered. They are currently maintained in complete or partial remission on CsA at dosages of 3.2-4.7 mg/kg/day. These findings suggest that CsA mono-therapy may be useful in nephrotic syndrome patients contra-indicated for steroid therapy. ( info)

7/368. Changes on magnetic resonance images after traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    SUMMARY: We describe two cases of avascular necrosis after traumatic fracture of the femoral neck. The size and signal intensity of the necrotic areas changed on follow-up magnetic resonance images. magnetic resonance imaging is suitable for showing resolvable changes that radiographic study cannot demonstrate during the clinical course. ( info)

8/368. Avascular necrosis in patients treated with BEP chemotherapy for testicular tumours.

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is known to occur after combination chemotherapy for lymphomas and leukaemias that includes high dose corticosteroids, but it has been reported rarely in patients with solid tumours. We describe five recent cases in young men with testicular tumours (three of which were of good prognosis), who had been treated with chemotherapy using dexamethasone as an antiemetic. dexamethasone is a low cost and effective antiemetic, but it may be responsible for inducing AVN in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumours. A prospective survey of the frequency of AVN is justified to quantify the extent of the problem. ( info)

9/368. Cushing's disease presenting with avascular necrosis of the hip: an orthopedic emergency.

    Nontraumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip is commonly caused by exogenous glucocorticoid administration, whereas it has rarely been associated with endogenous hypercortisolism. We report a 30-yr-old woman with Cushing's disease whose presenting manifestation was early AVN of the hip. Although plain x-ray was negative, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip showed stage 2 AVN. Her orthopedic disease was considered an emergency, and thus, it was treated with core decompression before the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) was pursued further. The femur recovered fully, as demonstrated by her improved clinical picture and a subsequent MRI. AVN carries a poor prognosis, if not treated early. The diagnostic procedure of choice is MRI, because plain radiographs are falsely negative in early stages. This case illustrates that AVN can be the presenting manifestation of CS; to prevent irreversible effects on the femoral head, core decompression should not be delayed for the purpose of evaluation and treatment of CS. ( info)

10/368. A clinicopathologic study of transient osteoporosis of the hip.

    OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) may represent the early reversible phase of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ON). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of three cases of TOH. DESIGN AND patients: A bone biopsy was performed on three patients who had been diagnosed as having TOH based on the clinical course, radiograph, bone scintigram, and MR images. The biopsy specimens were studied histopathologically by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The most characteristic feature of TOH was focal areas of thin and disconnected bone trabeculae covered by osteoid seams and active osteoblasts. The surrounding bone marrow tissue showed edematous changes and mild fibrosis, frequently associated with vascular congestion and/or interstitial hemorrhage. No osteonecrotic region was observed in either the bone trabeculae or the bone marrow tissue. All patients have improved clinically and in the 3.5-9 years of follow-up have shown no evidence of ON. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the concept that transient osteoporosis of the hip is a distinct entity. ( info)
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