Cases reported "Fetal Death"

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1/95. Iatrogenic monoamniotic twin gestation with progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: Intentional puncture of the membrane has been reported to be a promising new method for the management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. CASE REPORT: Treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome with serial amniocenteses resulted in unintentional puncture of the dividing membrane at 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth discordance increased, and twin-twin transfusion did not improve following the puncture. Intrauterine death of both fetuses at 27 weeks of gestation occurred. CONCLUSION: Amniotic septostomy for the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome should be performed with serious consideration.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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2/95. uterine artery embolization--a successful treatment to control bleeding cervical pregnancy with a simultaneous intrauterine gestation.

    A case of a woman suffering from a bleeding heterotopic cervical pregnancy is described. The concurrent cervical pregnancy and intrauterine gestation were diagnosed by ultrasound and bleeding was initially controlled with selective fluoroscopic uterine artery embolization. A selective fetal reduction was done with ultrasound-guided intracardiac potassium chloride. uterine artery embolization has been used successfully to control haemorrhage in cervical pregnancies when the main goal was to allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility. This is the first report of arterial embolization used to control bleeding for maintaining a concurrent intrauterine heterotopic pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization patient. Unfortunately, subsequent conservative measures led to undesired outcome. This procedure initially controlled the bleeding without disrupting the intrauterine fetal cardiac activity.
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ranking = 0.0090358993147972
keywords = haemorrhage
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3/95. Rapid development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin following death of the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Intrauterine death of one fetus in monochorionic twinning is associated with high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the surviving fetus. Subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin after fetal demise of the recipient twin has been described in only two case reports and pathophysiology remains unclear. We report on a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation showed discrepant twins with oligohydramnios in the smaller twins' sac and polyhydramnios in that of the larger twin. Repeated amniocenteses permitted prolongation of the pregnancy. However, the recipient twin developed deteriorating hydrops fetalis and died at 28 weeks of gestation. After this event, subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin could be observed, as well as an increase of amniotic fluid. An elective cesarean section was performed at 29 weeks of gestation. Initial hypoxemia could be effectively treated by high frequency oscillatory ventilation, surfactant therapy and inotropic support. The infant was discharged in good condition at the age of 2 months. Although rare, antenatal demise of the recipient twin in a monochorionic pregnancy can be associated with the subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin. We speculate that this phenomenon is due to ischemia-reperfusion injury of the previously poorly perfused twin.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = transfusion
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4/95. A proven case of materno-foetal transfusion determined by cytogenetic and dna analysis.

    We report a case of materno-foetal transfusion in a phenotypically normal male foetus after death in utero at the 35th week of gestation. We have used cytogenetic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis to determine the presence of maternal cells in foetal blood collected by intracardiac puncture. In the intracardiac blood sample, maternal cells were estimated to comprise between 5 and 10% of nucleated foetal blood cells. When there is a suspicion of foetal genetic pathology, it is necessary to be aware that the foetal blood karyotype may be misrepresentative, as the analysed blood cells can indeed be of maternal origin.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = transfusion
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5/95. Intra-uterine transfusion in the management of pregnant women with severe rhesus isoimmunization. II. Results and discussion.

    The results of 51 intra-uterine transfusions in 34 pregnant women with severe rhesus isoimmunization are presented. The survival rate is 56%. Factors influencing the fetal and neonatal mortality are considered, e.g. the gestational age at the initial intra-uterine transfusion, the presence of fetal hydrops, and the interval from the initial intra-uterine transfusion to delivery. The difficulties of the selection procedure are emphasized and it is stated that in some cases intra-uterine transfusion should perhaps not be performed because of a predictable poor fetal prognosis. The significance of accumulating experience is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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6/95. postpartum hemorrhage and intrauterine balloon tamponade. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: postpartum hemorrhage can become rapidly catastrophic. If medical management fails, then, according to recent reports, the use of an intrauterine inflated Foley catheter balloon for tamponade gives excellent results and can help avoid invasive procedures. CASE: We present one case of profuse hemorrhage following evacuation of the fetus after intrauterine fetal death at 17 weeks' gestation controlled with intrauterine balloon tamponade and two cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage (one immediate and one late) following normal vaginal deliveries, both controlled with Foley catheters. In either case the patient required no blood transfusions, and major surgery was avoided. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine balloon tamponade is highly effective. The catheter is readily available, is not expensive, does not require special training for insertion and, extremely important, can avoid major surgery.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = transfusion
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7/95. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome--a preliminary report.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the diagnostic possibilities of ultrasound in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), to demonstrate its usefulness in cases of hemoglobin difference < 5 g/dL in neonates as well as in cases complicated by intrauterine death of one or both twins. STUDY DESIGN: The study included 4 pairs of twins. In two cases 3 fetuses died in utero. In the other two the hemoglobin difference in newborn infants was < 5 g/dL. The ultrasound examination, evaluating the fetal anatomy and biometry, amniotic fluid volume, placentation, was performed. The special attention was paid to polyhydramnios/oligohydramnios, discordant fetal growth (fetal weight, abdominal circumference), the presence of fetal hydrops, ascites, pericardial effusion. Doppler blood flow velocimetry has been done in umbilical vessels, middle cerebral artery. The data was compared with normal reference values for singleton pregnancies. The waveforms from both uterine arteries were also evaluated to exclude placental insufficiency. Additionally the blood flow through the AV valves was measured to exclude or confirm its regurgitation. Postnatally the hemoglobin difference was evaluated if available and compared with sonographic findings. RESULTS: In all cases inter-twin difference in abdominal circumference was greater than 18 mm and inter-twin weight difference of more than 15%. We observed polyhydramnios/oligohydramnios in all twin pregnancies. It has been found decreased PI in middle cerebral artery in larger fetus (recipient) in all our cases (comparing to single pregnancy). PI values for this vessel in smaller fetuses were within normal range (for single pregnancy). PI values in umbilical arteries of recipients were abnormal (increased PI or absent end-diastolic flow). COMMENTS: The sonographic criteria seem to be very useful in diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, especially in cases where the measurement of hemoglobin level is impossible. Doppler blood flow velocimetry in fetal vessels helps to explain the changes in fetal hemodynamics in TTTS.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = transfusion
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8/95. Benefits and risks of fetal red-cell transfusion after 32 weeks gestation.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome after intrauterine transfusion (IUT) between fetuses treated before and those treated after 32 weeks gestation. SETTING: National referral center for intrauterine treatment of red-cell alloimmunization in The netherlands. Study DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of an 11 year period, during which 209 fetuses were treated for alloimmune hemolytic disease with 609 red-cell IUTs. We compared fetal and neonatal outcome in three groups: fetuses only treated before 32 weeks gestation (group A, n=46), those treated both before and after 32 weeks (group B, n=117), and those where IUT was started at or after 32 weeks (group C, n=46). RESULTS: survival rate was 48% in group A, 100% in group B, and 91% in group C. Moreover, fetuses in group A were hydropic significantly more often. Short-term perinatal loss rate after IUT was 3.4% in the 409 procedures performed before 32 weeks and 1.0% in the 200 procedures performed after 32 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: Perinatal losses were much more common in fetuses only treated before 32 weeks gestation. Two procedure-related perinatal losses in 200 IUT after 32 weeks remain a matter of concern because of the good prospects of alternative extrauterine treatment.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = transfusion
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9/95. Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome after the death of the donor co-twin in the second trimester.

    A twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome was diagnosed in a monochorionic-diamniotic pregnancy at 18 weeks' gestation without any malformation, especially heart defect. In spite of the aggressive treatment (serial amnioreduction, digoxin treatment) the donor twin died at 25 weeks and twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence developed and was documented by Doppler ultrasound. In the TRAP-twin, the route of the reversed blood flow from the umbilical arteries was as follows: descending aorta, aortic arch, ascending aorta, aortic valve, left ventricle, mitral valve, left atrium, foramen ovale, right atrium, inferior vena cava, ductus venosus; and back to the placenta through the umbilical vein. After a 12-h observation period the twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence disappeared. During this period ultrasound and fetal blood sampling revealed no sign of fetal anemia or disseminated intravascular coagulation in the surviving twin. Based on our observations, we propose, that the death of one of the twins in monochorionic pregnancy can result in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence, which is an ultimately rare phenomenon in the second trimester. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence subsequent to the intrauterine demise of one twin in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome in which the TRAP-twin had no cardiac malformation.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = transfusion
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10/95. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    BACKGROUND: Most congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. During pregnancy, pulmonary hemorrhage can occur, compromising maternal and fetal health. CASES: We studied three pregnancies in two women with hemorrhagic telangiectasia complicated by pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. A 28-year-old primigravida's fetus died at 25 weeks' gestation, and she had embolotherapy with coil springs, which corrected the hypoxemic state. In a subsequent pregnancy she delivered a healthy 2315-g infant at 38 weeks' gestation. A 19-year-old primigravida had spontaneous hemothorax at 26 weeks' gestation with severe hypoxemia and a growth-restricted fetus without umbilical artery diastolic flow. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed by computed tomography of the maternal lung. She had continued pulmonary bleeding, so emergency lung lobectomy was done. Maternal hypoxemia and umbilical diastolic flow improved, and she had term delivery of a healthy 2250-g infant. CONCLUSION: Antenatal diagnosis and treatment of women with hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations might prevent potentially life-threatening fetomaternal complications.
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ranking = 8.8542524050779
keywords = fetomaternal
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