Cases reported "Fetal Death"

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1/45. Two new cases of Cumming syndrome confirming autosomal recessive inheritance.

    We report on two stillborn sisters with generalized hydrops, campomelia, cervical lymphocele, and polycystic dysplasia of kidney, liver, and pancreas. This syndrome conforms to that first described by Cumming et al. [Am. J. Med. Genet. 25:783-790, 1986]. This observation provides additional support for the notion that this syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
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2/45. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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3/45. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome and aganglionosis in trisomy 18.

    ultrasonography at 23 weeks of gestation documented the presence of megacystis with horseshoe kidney, microcolon, intestinal malrotation, and decreased amniotic fluid volume. After pregnancy termination, an autopsy was performed. The external phenotype was diagnostic of the trisomy 18 syndrome confirmed by chromosome examination. The fetus also had a massively distended bladder with parchment-thin wall, microcolon, intestinal malrotation but no urethral obstruction or hydronephrosis. No ganglion cells were present in the colon or bladder. This has not been mentioned in other reported cases and, therefore, suggests pathogenic heterogeneity. The megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition of unknown pathogenesis whose genes map to 15q24. Thus, its previously undescribed presence in trisomy 18 further suggests etiologic heterogeneity.
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4/45. Fatal fetal outcome with the combined use of valsartan and atenolol.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, very small placenta, and fetal death in a pregnancy complicated by chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus that had been treated through the first 24 weeks of gestation with valsartan and atenolol. CASE SUMMARY: A 40-year-old Hispanic woman with well-controlled chronic hypertension and diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus was treated with valsartan and atenolol until pregnancy was diagnosed at 24 weeks' gestation. An ultrasound examination revealed normal fetal growth and anatomy but anhydramnios (amniotic fluid index 0). Valsartan was discontinued, and amniotic fluid volume normalized within two weeks. Intrauterine fetal death was documented at 33 weeks' gestation. Labor was induced, with the delivery of a stillbom female fetus with small, hypoplastic lungs (weight 41% of expected) and an extremely small, 148-g placenta (weight 48% of the 10th percentile for gestational age). DISCUSSION: The use of valsartan, a selective angiotensin ii receptor antagonist (ARA), in human pregnancy has not been reported, but this class of agents would be expected to cause fetal toxicity similar to that observed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. This toxicity includes reduced perfusion of the fetal kidneys, resulting in anuria, oligohydramnios, and subsequent pulmonary hypoplasia. The small hypoplastic lungs and very small placenta were probably a consequence of valsartan and atenolol combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Resolution of anhydramnios after discontinuing valsartan is evidence for ARA-induced fetal toxicity. The pulmonary hypoplasia observed in the stillbom infant was a direct result of the severe oligohydramnios. The cause of fetal death nine weeks later is uncertain, but because the woman's chronic hypertension and diabetes were well controlled, we believe the primary cause was chronic placental insufficiency resulting from the previous combination of valsartan and atenolol.
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5/45. Meckel Gruber syndrome--a single gene cause of recurrent neural tube defects.

    Meckel Gruber syndrome (MGS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by posterior encephalocoele, multicystic kidneys and post-axial polydactyly should be recognised by obstetricians and paediatricians to counsel parents regarding the 25% recurrence risk. We report a consanguineous family with MGS affecting three infants.
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6/45. Homozygous and double heterozygous factor v Leiden and Factor II G20210A genotypes predispose infants to thromboembolism but are not associated with an increase of foetal loss.

    Prospective and controlled data about the individual risk profile in asymptomatic children with homozygous or double heterozygous risk genotypes for factor v Leiden (FVL) and factor II (FII) G20210A are currently unavailable. The systematic and prospective observational study presented here was designed to determine the impact of the homozygous and double heterozygous FVL and FII G20210A genotypes on the prenatal and postnatal risk profiles of affected children. risk infants and heterozygous controls were identified by screening of 85,304 neonates. Follow-up included the comparison of prenatal and postnatal development, ultrasonography of brain and kidneys, and a panel of independent determinants of thrombophilia. The numbers of identified or expected FVL homozygotes and double heterozygotes did not differ significantly (FVL: 116 versus 91, p=0.08; FVL/FII: 94 versus 76, p=0.17), indicating the absence of a prenatal disadvantage. A prenatal advantage was suggested in FII homozygotes, whose identified number far exceeded the expected (19 versus 4, p=0.002). Clinical and/or imaging abnormalities indicated spontaneous thromboembolic events in 4 of 129 risk infants (3%) but in none of the 178 controls (p=0.02). Physical and neurological development was normal in both groups during the first 2 years of life. The risk genotypes appear to confer a significant predisposition for spontaneous thromboembolic events in infancy without impeding development within the first two years of life. Foetal risk genotypes do not cause an increased foetal loss rate. Moreover, homozygous FII G20210A appears to be associated with a prenatal advantage.
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7/45. Limb body wall complex.

    A case of Limb body wall complex is reported in a preterm, Low birth weight and stillborn neonate. The proposita had abdominal wall defect with evisceration of the organs into an amnio-peritonial sac, a short body stalk, torsion of spine with scoliosis and limb defects. Unusual associations present in this case were absent thymus, interstitial calcification in kidney and a history of exposure to birth control pills during first two months post-conception.
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8/45. Short rib polydactyly syndrome-Type I.

    Short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) consists of a group of lethal skeletal dysplasias presenting with short limbs and ribs, hypoplastic thorax and polydactyly with or without visceral abnormalities. The authors report a case of SRPS in a fresh stillborn baby who had these features along with dysplastic kidneys. Clinical and radiological findings in this baby were consistent with SRPS - Type I (Saldino-Noonan Type). The diagnosis of SRPS, as in this case, can be made by antenatal ultrasonography.
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9/45. Meckel Gruber syndrome: occurrence in non-consanguineous marriages.

    Meckel Gruber syndrome is an uncommon, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder, associated consistently with polycystic kidneys, posterior encephalocoele and polydactly. We report three cases in non-consanguineous marriages, suggesting that the single gene defect occurs more commonly in non-consanguineous marriages than mutant genes associated with other autosomal recessive disorders that are usually related with consanguineous marriages. The usefulness of prenatal diagnosis is discussed.
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10/45. Prenatal findings in four consecutive pregnancies with fetal Pierson syndrome, a newly defined congenital nephrosis syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prenatal findings in Pierson syndrome, a newly defined autosomal recessive entity, comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct eye abnormalities due to LAMB2 mutations. methods: Serial prenatal ultrasound examinations were performed in four consecutive pregnancies affected by Pierson syndrome in the same family. LAMB2 mutations were demonstrated in retrospect by direct sequencing of the gene in the newborn index patient and three abortuses. RESULTS: Fetal ultrasound consistently revealed marked renal hyperechogenicity associated with variable degree of pyelectasis. These features were detectable by 15 weeks of gestation in all fetuses. hydrops fetalis due to severe hypalbuminemia demonstrated by chordocentesis occurred in one fetus. Placentas were significantly enlarged. Development of oligohydramnios indicated prenatal decline of renal excretory function. anencephaly was detected in another fetus with molecularly proven Pierson syndrome at 12 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Pierson syndrome has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of nephrotic disorders with prenatal onset. Ultrasound criteria for differentiation from the most common type of CNS-congenital nephrosis of the Finnish type (CNF)-are discussed. Because of its prognostic relevance, we advocate molecular genetic testing of LAMB2 in any case of prenatally detected nephrotic syndrome with negative results of NPHS1 mutational screening, especially in the presence of the typical sonomorphologic findings of the kidneys and the development of oligohydramnios.
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