Cases reported "Fetal Death"

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1/493. Iatrogenic monoamniotic twin gestation with progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: Intentional puncture of the membrane has been reported to be a promising new method for the management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. CASE REPORT: Treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome with serial amniocenteses resulted in unintentional puncture of the dividing membrane at 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth discordance increased, and twin-twin transfusion did not improve following the puncture. Intrauterine death of both fetuses at 27 weeks of gestation occurred. CONCLUSION: Amniotic septostomy for the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome should be performed with serious consideration.
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2/493. Early prenatal diagnosis of cord entanglement in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies.

    OBJECTIVES: Cord entanglement is a severe complication in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. Three cases were reviewed to determine how early ultrasound diagnosis might improve counselling and management. methods: In two monoamniotic twin and one dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies, cord entanglement was detected between 10 and 18 gestational weeks by color Doppler and pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Pregnancies were followed up on a weekly basis with special observation of fetal behavior and use of color Doppler velocimetry. RESULTS: In Case 1, a monoamniotic twin pregnancy with cord entanglement close to the umbilical insertions was diagnosed at 10 weeks. Longitudinal follow-up showed intrauterine death of both twins at 15 weeks. In Case 2, entanglement of the umbilical cords of two monoamniotic triplets within a dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy was diagnosed at 10 weeks. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until 35 weeks when cord entanglement was confirmed at cesarean section. All triplets have since developed normally. In Case 3, monoamniotic twins were diagnosed at 18 weeks. color Doppler detected side-by-side insertion of the umbilical cords and Doppler velocimetry suggested an entanglement at the chorionic plate. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. cesarean section at 36 weeks confirmed cord entanglement at the chorionic plate. Postnatal computer angiography and morphological examination of the placenta showed the presence of superficial artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses and of deep arteriovenous shunts. The development of the twins was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of cord entanglement is feasible early in gestation. Future protocols are proposed to document the gestational age at detection, the location, and the Doppler flow patterns and to facilitate the assessment of short- and long-term development.
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3/493. Massive rectal bleeding due to jejunal and colonic tuberculosis.

    A case of massive rectal bleeding due to colonic tuberculosis in advanced pregnancy with intrauterine foetal death is reported. Patient was treated with resection of the left colon and left transverse end colostomy with closure of the rectal stump. hysterotomy for the removal of the dead foetus was performed. The patient improved in health with antitubercular treatment. The colorectal anastomosis was performed after 4 months. Massive rectal bleeding in intestinal tuberculosis, though rare should be kept in mind.
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4/493. Rapid development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin following death of the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Intrauterine death of one fetus in monochorionic twinning is associated with high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the surviving fetus. Subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin after fetal demise of the recipient twin has been described in only two case reports and pathophysiology remains unclear. We report on a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation showed discrepant twins with oligohydramnios in the smaller twins' sac and polyhydramnios in that of the larger twin. Repeated amniocenteses permitted prolongation of the pregnancy. However, the recipient twin developed deteriorating hydrops fetalis and died at 28 weeks of gestation. After this event, subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin could be observed, as well as an increase of amniotic fluid. An elective cesarean section was performed at 29 weeks of gestation. Initial hypoxemia could be effectively treated by high frequency oscillatory ventilation, surfactant therapy and inotropic support. The infant was discharged in good condition at the age of 2 months. Although rare, antenatal demise of the recipient twin in a monochorionic pregnancy can be associated with the subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin. We speculate that this phenomenon is due to ischemia-reperfusion injury of the previously poorly perfused twin.
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5/493. A proven case of materno-foetal transfusion determined by cytogenetic and dna analysis.

    We report a case of materno-foetal transfusion in a phenotypically normal male foetus after death in utero at the 35th week of gestation. We have used cytogenetic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis to determine the presence of maternal cells in foetal blood collected by intracardiac puncture. In the intracardiac blood sample, maternal cells were estimated to comprise between 5 and 10% of nucleated foetal blood cells. When there is a suspicion of foetal genetic pathology, it is necessary to be aware that the foetal blood karyotype may be misrepresentative, as the analysed blood cells can indeed be of maternal origin.
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6/493. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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7/493. The monoamniotic twin: a riskful event.

    The monoamniotic twin is at risk for high perinatal mortality because of cord accidents. There is no consensus in literature for the obstetric management in these cases. Contradictory results are reported according to fatal complications by cord accidents after 32 weeks gestation and safety of vaginal delivery. Recently two patients were admitted to our hospital with monoamniotic twin pregnancies and a fetal death in the third trimester. On the basis of these cases a review of the literature is presented and a case registry is recommended.
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8/493. Intra-uterine death due to umbilical cord thrombosis secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome.

    This is a case of intra-uterine death due to a thrombotic event on the fetal side of circulation in a woman who was subsequently diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome.
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9/493. hemangioma of the umbilical cord: stenotic change of the umbilical vessels.

    We report a rare case of an umbilical cord hemangioma diagnosed by ultrasound at 16 weeks of gestation. The umbilical cord consisted of a hemangioma nodule and pseudocysts near the placental insertion, a large gelatin-like swelling adjacent to the nodule on its fetal side, and a short normal part extending to the navel. At 17 weeks of gestation, this condition resulted in the intrauterine death of the fetus. Microscopically, there were communications between the capillary of the hemangioma and the umbilical vessels, verifying the origin of the tumor. Moreover, the umbilical vein and one of the arteries changed stenotically due to the intravascular proliferation of the hemangioma. These findings indicate the possibility of a pathological association between the umbilical cord hemangioma and fetal demise due to impaired umbilical circulation.
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10/493. Are bilateral fetal lung masses double trouble?

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the perinatal natural history of bilateral fetal cystic lung masses. methods: The records of a tertiary medical center over a 3-year period were reviewed for cases of fetal bilateral pulmonary masses. RESULTS: Three of 98 fetuses referred for evaluation over a 3-year period from September of 1995 to August of 1998 had bilateral lung lesions. Two of these cases resulted in live births, while one, associated with hydrops, resulted in death after preterm delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to prenatally diagnosed unilateral lung lesions, hydropic fetuses with bilateral cystic lung lesions have a poor prognosis. Nonhydropic fetuses, however, may be asymptomatic despite persistent lesions on postnatal CT scan. These observation may prove helpful for prenatal counseling for these rare lesions.
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