Cases reported "Fetal Death"

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1/43. Infiltration block for caesarean section in a morbidly obese parturient.

    We report a case of a morbidly obese parturient (150 kg and 150 cm) for emergency lower segment caesarean section for dead foetus. Her pregnancy had been unsupervised. She presented with severe pre-eclampsia, generalized oedema and acute respiratory failure. Caesarean section was performed under infiltration block using lidocaine 0.5-1.0%. Her status improved postoperatively with aggressive physiotherapy, nursing in a semirecumbent position and oxygen supplementation.
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keywords = operative
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2/43. Pressure in the hydrocephalic fetal head during the first stage of labor.

    Intraamniotic pressure was studied in the 30th week of amenorrhea in relationship with fetal intracranial pressure with open-tip catheters. The fetus had a severe hydrocephalus (echoscopy 16 cm) due to a teratologic malformation of the cerebrum. Clinically nonoperative treatment was indicated. intracranial pressure (X) was invariably higher than intraamniotic pressure (Y) between contractions: Y = 2.04 0.54 X, and during contractions: Y = 5.30 0.55 X. There was no definite relationship between intrauterine and intracranial pressure, and the fetal tachogram. A definite relationship was established with the supine position of the patient and decelerations in the fetal tachogram. It is suggested that when fetal cardiac decelerations are seen during the first stage of labor it seems advisable to look for factors such as umbilical cord compression and decrease of materno-placental perfusion rather than fetal head compression.
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keywords = operative
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3/43. Transabdominal amnioinfusion to avoid fetal demise and intestinal damage in fetuses with gastroschisis and severe oligohydramnios.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Despite dramatic improvement in survival rate for neonates with gastroschisis, significant postoperative morbidity and a low mortality rate still occur. Furthermore, even in recent publications, some fetal death has been reported. Does this mean that antenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis is a missed opportunity? In fact, decreased amniotic fluid (AF) volume is observed in some fetuses with gastroschisis. However, oligohydramnios is associated with an increased risk of fetal suffering. When severe oligohydramnios is observed, intrapartum amnioinfusion, to restore AF volume, may help avoid fetal complications. methods: Two fetuses with gastroschisis and severe oligohydramnios were treated antenatally with amnioinfusion of saline solution. In one case, fetal heart beat decelerations were observed at 27 weeks' gestation among with the oligohydroamnios and serial transabdominal amnioinfusions were performed. In the second case, severe oligohydramnios was observed at 31, weeks and an amnioinfusion was performed. The 2 babies were delivered at 31 and 34 weeks, respectively. RESULTS: In both cases, exteriorized bowel was nearly normal at birth, and primary closure could be performed. Outcome was favorable, and they were discharged home on day 43 and day 54, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because fetuses with gastroschisis and oligohydramnios are part of a particular high-risk group, serial ultrasound examination and computerized fetal heart beat monitoring are necessary during the third trimester. In selected cases of gastroschisis associated with severe oligohydramnios, serial amnioinfusion may be required.
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keywords = operative
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4/43. Reconstruction of aplasia cutis congenita of the trunk in a newborn infant using acellular allogenic dermal graft and cultured epithelial autografts.

    Aplasia cutis congenita, a congenital condition characterized by the absence of all skin layers, occurs mostly on the scalp, but may also involve the trunk and extremities. Conservative treatment using silver sulfadiazine with daily dressing change has been recommended to avoid donor site morbidity and operative risks to the neonate who may have other congenital defects. Others have proposed early surgical intervention to prevent problems associated with delayed wound healing. In this case of a newborn, the authors used an alternative therapy to avoid delayed wound healing and multiple surgical interventions. During one operative procedure, a 130-cm2 lesion on the trunk was covered with allogeneic dermis and cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs). After 2.5 weeks and with three additional applications of CEAs at bedside, 90% of the wound had healed. At 27 months, the grafted area was smooth, and pliable with normal skin texture.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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5/43. esophageal achalasia in pregnancy.

    Achalasia is rare motor disorder of esophageal smooth muscle. It has been linked to malnutrition during pregnancy leading to maternal and fetal mortality. We report a case of achalasia with intrauterine fetal death who succeeded in following pregnancy with good fetal and maternal outcome after operative treatment. A 34-year-old pregnant woman had intrauterine fetal death at 27 gestational weeks due to severe and persistent maternal malnutrition during pregnancy. Achalasia was diagnosed postpartum and myotomy-fundoplasty was performed. She succeeded in normal delivery with a healthy baby 21 months after the operation. This case suggests the effect of severe achalasia of early onset on poor fetal outcome, and the efficacy of surgical myotomy for the improvement of following pregnant outcome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/43. Emergency redo mitral valve replacement in a 27-year-old pregnant female with a clotted prosthetic mitral valve, preoperative fetal demise and postoperative ventricular assist device: a case report.

    A 27-year-old Laotian woman with a St Jude mechanical mitral valve became pregnant, requiring a change in her anticoagulant after the first trimester when her warfarin sodium (coumadin) was replaced with enoxaparin sodium (lovenox). Her prosthetic valve clotted and became dysfunctional. She was 16 weeks pregnant and was taken to the operating room for emergency surgery for replacement of the valve. The fetus had not been viable for 1-2 weeks, but still remained in utero. The clotted valve was replaced with another St Jude valve of a slightly smaller diameter (27 mm). The patient could not be weaned from bypass so a right ventricular assist device (RVAD) was inserted. The patient was weaned from the RVAD after 2 days of support. Two days following removal of the RVAD the fetus spontaneously aborted. The patient had a long, complicated hospital course and was discharged 3 months later. She subsequently died 4 months after discharge of a cerebral hemorrhage from excessive anticoagulation.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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7/43. Conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy in a cesarean section scar with methotrexate: a case report.

    Ectopic pregnancies sited in dehiscent cesarean section scars have a high risk of rupture and bleeding. Attempts at operative therapy frequently end in loss of the uterus. A connection with the cavum uteri justifies an attempt at dilatation and curettage. We describes a patient with combined systemic and local intra-amniotic methotrexate (MTX). The uterus was preserved.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/43. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy.

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency occurring during pregnancy. To determine possible methods for improving diagnostic and management accuracy, a retrospective review was conducted of 23 pregnant patients who underwent laparotomy with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Gestational stage at presentation included the first trimester in 2 patients, the second trimester in 6 patients and the third trimester in 15 patients. Eighteen patients (78.26%) had pathologically proven acute appendicitis. Perforation occurred in 2 patients. Postoperative fetal complications included one intrauterine death (4.3%) and three premature births. There was no maternal deaths and morbidity was limited to atelectasis and wound infection in 4 patients. Gestational physiologic changes make difficult the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Prompt surgical intervention prevent maternal complications and foetal loss.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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9/43. Embolization for advanced abdominal pregnancy with a retained placenta. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal pregnancy is not encountered commonly, and management of the placenta is controversial. CASE: A 33-year-old woman presented with an abdominal pregnancy at 33 weeks' gestation with fetal death. The placental vasculature was embolized preoperatively. Following operative delivery. of the fetus, the placenta was left in situ in efforts to preserve fertility given its implantation on the reproductive organs. The patient suffered prolonged postoperative ileus but otherwise did well. Placental function ceased after two months. CONCLUSION: Placental vasculature embolization is a management option for a retained placenta associated with abdominal pregnancy.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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10/43. Gastric rupture associated with pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous gastric rupture during pregnancy is rare. CASE: A young primigravida delivered a 34-week stillborn infant. Shortly after delivery, she developed signs of hypovolemic shock. Ultrasound examination showed a large amount of free intra-abdominal fluid. At laparotomy, gastric rupture was encountered and repaired. Congenital eventration of the left hemidiaphragm was also noted. After a complicated postoperative course, the patient recovered and has done well. CONCLUSION: Rapid surgical intervention for gastric rupture associated with pregnancy is necessary for maternal survival.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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