Cases reported "Fetal Death"

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1/50. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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keywords = trisomy
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2/50. Maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally.

    Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) has been associated with a distinct phenotype. We describe the first case of maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally, in a pregnancy with mosaicism for trisomy 14 observed in both a chorionic villus sample (CVS) and in amniocytes. Detailed analysis of polymorphic microsatellites showed that the fetus was essentially isodisomic for one of the mother's chromosomes 14 and that recombination had introduced a mid-long arm region of heterodisomy. The fetus, which died in utero at 18 weeks, showed no apparent pathological features. The case demonstrates for the first time a maternal meiosis II non-disjunction of chromosome 14 leading to a trisomic conception which has been incompletely corrected by 'rescue' in the early embryo.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = trisomy
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3/50. trisomy 2p syndrome: a fetus with anencephaly and postaxial polydactyly.

    We report on a male fetus with partial trisomy 2p21-2pter and monosomy 15q26-15qter due to t(2,15)(p21;q26). This fetus had a typical trisomy 2p phenotype including minor facial anomalies, musculoskeletal defects and two unusual findings: polydactyly and anencephaly. The observation of anencephaly adds support to the theory that genetic material mapping to chromosome band 2p24 is involved in neural tube development. In addition, we propose that a gene on 2p23 may play a role in the morphogenetic patterning of hands and feet.
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ranking = 0.34883937164668
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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4/50. Molecular cytogenetic studies in three patients with partial trisomy 2p, including CGH from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    We report on three cases of partial trisomy 2p in which the identification and exact localization of the duplicated chromosome segment was possible only by application of molecular cytogenetic techniques. These included fluorescence in situ hybridization by use of wcp2, N-myc, and subtelomeric 2p probes and comparative genomic hybridization with dna isolated from blood samples, frozen fetal tendon, and formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal lung tissue. Two of the cases concerned fetuses of gestational week 20 and 24 with duplication of nonoverlapping terminal (2pter-->p24) and more proximal (2p25-->p23) segments and with distinctly different phenotypes. The third case was due to a de novo inverted duplication of 2p25-->p23, with loss of the subtelomeric region of 2p. This 53-month-old girl was a bloom syndrome carrier. The patient had prenatal growth failure, borderline microcephaly, dilated lateral horns of the cerebral ventricles, transient cortical blindness, myopia, muscle hypotonia, and dilatation of the left renal collecting system. Dermal cysts were found on the glabella, the soles of both feet, and the vocal cord, causing respiratory embarrassment. Previously reported cases of pure trisomy 2p are reviewed, in an attempt to correlate clinical findings to overlapping regions in 2p. These cases illustrate the effectiveness of molecular cytogenetic methods in resolving subtle chromosomal aberrations in order to coordinate more accurately a chromosome regionspecific phenotype.
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ranking = 1.0775301915667
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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5/50. Pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome in siblings.

    We describe a brother and sister who both had holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cardiac lesions and a normal karyotype. The parents were first cousins and a diagnosis of pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome is suggested. This report provides further support that the inheritance of pseudotrisomy 13 syndrome is autosomal recessive.
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keywords = trisomy
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6/50. Heterotopic thyroid tissue at the porta hepatis in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    Heterotopic thyroid tissue at the porta hepatis in a fetus with trisomy 18 is described. The fetus had an eutopic thyroid gland without any abnormalities. The heterotopic thyroid was found at the porta hepatis and showed histological features similar to the eutopic thyroid. Immunohistochemically, the heterotopic follicles were positive for thyroglobulin, but no calcitonin-positive cells were found. Intra-abdominal heterotopic thyroid is exceedingly rare in locations other than the ovary, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of a fetal case. The present case provides clear evidence that abdominal heterotopic thyroid can occur as a congenital anomaly. Migration abnormality of the median anlage of the thyroid is the most likely histogenesis of heterotopic thyroid at the porta hepatis.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = trisomy
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7/50. prenatal diagnosis of intrahepatic communications of the umbilical vein with atypical arteries (A-V fistulae) in two cases of trisomy 21 using color Doppler ultrasound.

    We report on two cases of the prenatal diagnosis of arterio-venous communication between the intra-abdominal umbilical vein and atypical arteries. The diagnosis was made by color and spectral Doppler and 'color power angiography'. Both cases presented with hydrops fetalis, one at 14 and the other at 31 weeks of gestation. In the first case, color Doppler demonstrated an atypical arterial vessel connecting the umbilical vein with the aorta; the ductus venosus was patent. echocardiography showed a so-called atrioventricular canal. In the second case, a complex intrahepatic vascular malformation was found. color Doppler demonstrated communications between the umbilical vein and the hepatic artery and an atypical artery; the ductus venosus was patent. In the latter case polyhydramnios, duodenal atresia and macroglossia were additionally detected. In both cases, fetal karyotyping revealed trisomy 21. The first case resulted in a missed abortion, the second in a stillbirth. All findings were confirmed on autopsy. Of interest is that both fetuses were affected with trisomy 21. The increasing use of color Doppler in prenatal diagnosis, especially in hemodynamically compromised fetuses, will help to determine the actual incidence of complex vascular malformations of the umbilical vein and to elucidate the impact of such malformations on fetal outcome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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8/50. Two cases of confined placental mosaicism for chromosome 4, including one with maternal uniparental disomy.

    Two cases of trisomy 4 mosaicism are reported including one with molecularly confirmed uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 4. cytogenetic analysis of a chorionic villus sample (CVS) in Case 1 showed complete trisomy 4 in trophoblast and diploidy in chorionic stroma. amniotic fluid analysis demonstrated a 46,XX complement. After intrauterine fetal death at 30 weeks, molecular analysis confirmed the presence of trisomy 4 of maternal meiotic origin, while fetal tissues showed maternal UPD for chromosome 4. Cultured CVS in Case 2 revealed trisomy 4 in 2/30 cells analyzed. This pregnancy resulted in a healthy livebirth with biparental inheritance of chromosome 4. Molecularly confirmed UPD4 has not been previously reported, and therefore, although the adverse outcome in Case 1 is likely due to the trisomy 4 in the placenta, an imprinting effect associated with UPD4 cannot be excluded.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = trisomy
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9/50. Fetal hydrops and hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy: a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21.

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the relationship between fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy with a myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SUBJECTS: Cases were selected from 79 cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in our prenatal unit between 1993 and 1999. methods: All fetuses had a detailed sonographic anatomic survey and biometry. Doppler of the umbilical and middle cerebral arteries, ductus venosus, inferior vena cava and umbilical vein was performed whenever possible. Two-dimensional echocardiography supplemented by color Doppler flow mapping and spectral pulsed wave Doppler was performed in all cases of fetal hydrops. Fetal karyotyping was obtained by amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling or fetal blood sampling. In the presence of fetal hydrops a cordocentesis was performed for fetal hematology, biochemistry and TORCH serology. In cases with diagnosis of myeloproliferative disorder, peripheral blast cells were characterized by microscopy, cytochemistry and determination of surface markers. All cases with myeloproliferative disorder were stillborn and subsequently had a postmortem examination performed. RESULTS: During the study period 79 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed. Eleven of these had fetal hydrops. Three of these fetuses presented with hepatosplenomegaly and myeloproliferative disorder in the second and third trimesters. In addition, one fetus with sonographic markers of trisomy 21, where karyotyping was unfortunately unsuccessful, presented with hepatosplenomegaly, hydrops and myeloproliferative disorder. In the four fetuses with hepatosplenomegaly and hydrops, serology was negative for congenital infection. The characteristics of blast cells in the peripheral blood smear revealed a myeloproliferative disorder. CONCLUSION: Fetal hydrops and/or hepatosplenomegaly in the second half of pregnancy, although suggestive of infectious etiology, may be a sign of myeloproliferative disorder in fetuses with trisomy 21 or mosaic trisomy 21. There is a possibility that a transient myeloproliferative disorder is a more common cause of mid or late-trimester hydrops in cases of trisomy 21 than previously thought. In these hydropic fetuses the prognosis seems to be poor. On the other hand we can speculate that a myeloproliferative disorder and the associated hepatosplenomegaly and/or hydrops may show spontaneous remission or that the transient myeloproliferative disorder may be without any detectable ultrasonographic signs and therefore may be more frequent in utero than realized.
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keywords = trisomy
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10/50. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome and aganglionosis in trisomy 18.

    ultrasonography at 23 weeks of gestation documented the presence of megacystis with horseshoe kidney, microcolon, intestinal malrotation, and decreased amniotic fluid volume. After pregnancy termination, an autopsy was performed. The external phenotype was diagnostic of the trisomy 18 syndrome confirmed by chromosome examination. The fetus also had a massively distended bladder with parchment-thin wall, microcolon, intestinal malrotation but no urethral obstruction or hydronephrosis. No ganglion cells were present in the colon or bladder. This has not been mentioned in other reported cases and, therefore, suggests pathogenic heterogeneity. The megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition of unknown pathogenesis whose genes map to 15q24. Thus, its previously undescribed presence in trisomy 18 further suggests etiologic heterogeneity.
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keywords = trisomy
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