Cases reported "Fetal Diseases"

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1/91. In utero treatment of fetal complete heart block with terbutaline. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated fetal complete heart block is an uncommon finding, with a mortality rate of 20-30%. Various treatment modalities have been reported, with no consistent success. CASE: Fetal complete heart bock was diagnosed in a 30-year-old woman at 29 weeks' gestation. She had an elevated antinuclear antibody and anti-SSA antibody titer. Fetal cardiac decompensation was detected at 32 weeks. After a trial of intravenous isoproterenol without significant side effects, she was treated with oral terbutaline. An increase in the fetal ventricular rate and complete resolution of hydrops fetalis occurred. A male infant was delivered by cesarean section, at term, and underwent cardiac pacemaker implantation at 4 days of age. CONCLUSION: The treatment of fetal complete heart block is controversial. Premature delivery with cardiac pacing is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report prenatal treatment with oral sympathomimetic medication, which allowed delivery to be delayed until term, with a successful outcome.
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2/91. Progressive disease of the atrioventricular conduction axis in an infant of an anti-Ro positive mother.

    A child of a mother with maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies presented antenatally with abnormal myocardial function, and was found to have a first degree heart block at birth. The extent of the abnormality in the conduction system progressed, with appearance of left bundle branch block in addition to further prolongation of PR interval. A pacemaker was implanted prophylactically, but patient has remained well, with no further deterioration in her atrioventricular conduction.
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3/91. role of fetal echocardiography in the management of isolated fetal heart block with ventricular rate <55 bpm.

    Persistent bradycardia is an uncommon cardiac problem in fetuses but carries a high mortality in those with a ventricular rate <55 bpm. fetal heart block is one of the most common causes of persistent fetal bradycardia (PFB). An optimal method for assessing and monitoring cardiovascular compensation in the setting of PFB due to heart block has not been fully established. We report the application of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in close monitoring of cardiac function and hemodynamics in a third-trimester fetus with a ventricular rate <55 bpm due to heart block, which assisted in successful management of the pregnancy to term. Hemodynamic and cardiac adaptive changes in compromised fetuses, particularly due to heart block, are discussed.
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4/91. Perinatal monitoring of fetal well-being in the presence of congenital heart block.

    We present a case of congenital complete heart block associated with maternal autoantibodies in which a normal labor and delivery could safely be allowed to proceed despite the absence of the usual tool of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring for fetal distress, by the technique of rupturing membranes and using a fetal scalp electrode electrocardiographic tracing to assess the fetal atrial rate.
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5/91. A variant of long qt syndrome manifested as fetal tachycardia and associated with ventricular septal defect.

    Two patients with a novel variant of long qt syndrome are described. The clinical course was characterised by an in utero onset of ventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular block (at 26 and 30 weeks' gestational age, respectively), and an association with a ventricular septal defect. Studies of both patients' families identified relatives with prolonged QT interval, syncope, or sudden death. One patient died of intractable ventricular tachycardia at 4 days old. The other received beta blocker treatment and a pacemaker. She died suddenly at the age of 10 months. The unique association with ventricular septal defect and the malignant clinical course warrants further molecular diagnosis of this novel variant of long qt syndrome.
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6/91. Fetal treatment of congenital heart block ascribed to anti-SSA antibody: case reports with observation of cardiohemodynamics and review of the literature.

    PROBLEM: Maternal anti-SSA(B) antibody crosses the placenta and causes fetal myocarditis, congenital heart block (CHB), hydrops fetalis, and intrauterine fetal death. The aim of this study was to evaluate corticosteroids' efficacy as a treatment for CHB. METHOD OF STUDY: One fetus with complete CHB and one fetus with incomplete CHB due to anti-SSA(B) antibody received maternal prednisolone (PSL) and dexamethasone (DEXA) treatments. heart rate, cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), left ventricular fractional shortening (FS), and preload index (PLI) were longitudinally measured by serial fetal echocardiograms. RESULTS: In the former case, after maternal PSL/DEXA administration, improvement of cardiohemodynamics, i.e., the reduction of PLI from 1.7 to 0.4, CTR from 70 to 52%, and FS from 63 to 54% were observed. In the latter case, second degree 2:1 block was converted to 3:2 block/sinus rhythm, resulting in the increase of the fetal heart rate from 65 to 116 beats per minute (bpm). CONCLUSIONS: We disclosed for the first time the beneficial effects of corticosteroids in the fetal cardiohemodynamics and conduction system of affected fetuses with the presence of maternal anti-SSA(B) antibodies.
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7/91. Assessment of fetal rhythm in complete congenital heart block by magnetocardiography.

    We report high precision assessment of fetal rhythm in utero in a case of isolated congenital complete heart block using fetal magnetocardiography. The recordings reveal a remarkably strong tendency for the atria and ventricles to synchronize, which is manifested by the continual presence of ventriculophasic sinus arrhythmia and frequent episodes of accrochage and isorhythmic AV dissociation.
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8/91. Fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of the twins--a case history.

    There are a lot of publications about fetal arrhythmia in singletons, but up to now there are no published data about fetal arrhythmia in multiple pregnancies. In the present study a case history of fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of twins from two mothers treated with betamimetic agents due to imminent preterm labor is reported and discussed. A first case with fetal bradycardia due to complete A-V block had congenital cordis abnormalities (VSD and PFO). The second case with prenatal detected extrasystoles had normal heart anatomy. digoxin was administered to the mother, in the aim to treat fetal arrhythmia without success, because the baby had postnatal bradycardia. After hospitalisation in cardiology Department the described cases were successfully treated. In both cases the second twins were without neonatal arrhythmia and with no structural heart abnormalities. We summarise that in situation of detection fetal arrhythmia the complexity of the problems experienced may warrant early referral to a tertiary centre where the overall management of the mother, fetus and neonate, may be undertaken.
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9/91. A case of fetal complete heart block recorded by magnetocardiography, ultrasonography and direct fetal electrocardiography.

    Fetal magnetocardiograms (FMCGs) were recorded in a case of fetal complete heart block (CHB) from the 30th to the 37th week of gestation using the multichannel SQUID system (Hitachi, japan). M-mode ultrasonography and direct fetal electrocardiography using needle electrodes revealed fetal CHB. We identified independent fetal P-waves and QRS complexes in the FMCG recorded in the 32nd week of gestation when the fetal atriums were close to the FMCG sensor. We also recorded FMCG P-waves in the 37th week of gestation when the fetal heart was larger. fetal heart position and size are important for obtaining a useful FMCG. To establish FMCG as a diagnostic tool of fetal arrhythmia, comparative studies with FECG are needed.
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10/91. Primary sjogren's syndrome--treatment of fetal incomplete atrioventricular block with dexamethasone.

    Pregnancies in women with autoantibodies against Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB may be associated with permanent and treatment resistant fetal atrioventricular (AV) block. We describe a patient with primary S ogren's syndrome and anti-Ro (60 kDa and 52 kDa) and anti-La autoantibodies, in whom fetal bradycardia with second-degree AV block was detected at 19 0 weeks of gestation. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone (4 mg/day po) was started 2 days later. The baby's heart rate improved gradually, returning to normal after about 6 weeks of treatment. Our case illustrates the importance of close monitoring of the fetal heart rate in risk-pregnancies from about week 16 of gestation and initiation of dexamethasone treatment without delay when a block is detected.
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