Cases reported "Fetal Diseases"

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1/199. Recurrent fetal polycystic kidneys associated with glutaric aciduria type II.

    A woman had two pregnancies terminated in the 20th and 21st weeks of gestation after ultrasonographic detection of enlarged hyperechoic kidneys in both fetuses. The combination of polycystic kidneys and steatotic liver found at autopsy suggested glutaric aciduria type II (GA II), which was confirmed by biochemical investigation. GA II or multiple acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited defect of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which usually results in neonatal death. When pregnancy is terminated because of enlarged hyperechoic kidneys in the fetus, autopsy is crucial for establishing the correct diagnosis. The combination of polycystic kidneys and steatotic liver should bring GA II to mind, and prompt appropriate biochemical investigations so that genetic counselling and first trimester diagnosis can be offered in future pregnancies.
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2/199. Clinical spectrum of infantile free sialic acid storage disease.

    Infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a lysosomal membrane transport defect, resulting in accumulation of free sialic acid within lysosomes. Only a few cases have been described. We report on three new cases of ISSD with different modes of presentation: an infant with nephrotic syndrome, a case of fetal and neonatal ascites with heart failure, and a case of fetal ascites with esophageal atresia type III. From these patients and a review of the literature (27 cases total) we draw the following conclusions. 1) "Coarse facies," fair complexion, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe psychomotor retardation are constant findings in this disorder. 2) nephrotic syndrome occurred in most cases (four in seven) in which renal evaluation was performed. Therefore, ISSD is an important cause of nephrosis in infants with a storage disorder phenotype. 3) Fetal/neonatal ascites or hydrops was the mode of presentation in 13 (60%) of 21 cases. Thus, ISSD enters in the differential diagnosis of hydrops fetalis with a storage disease phenotype. 4) cardiomegaly was evident in nine cases. 5) Corneae were always clear, and albinoid fundi were reported in five cases. 6) Dysostosis multiplex was not prominent. 7) bone marrow aspiration could be negative. 8) Death ensued in early infancy with a mean age of 13.1 months. All reported deaths were caused by respiratory infections.
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3/199. Early prenatal diagnosis of cord entanglement in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies.

    OBJECTIVES: Cord entanglement is a severe complication in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. Three cases were reviewed to determine how early ultrasound diagnosis might improve counselling and management. methods: In two monoamniotic twin and one dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies, cord entanglement was detected between 10 and 18 gestational weeks by color Doppler and pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Pregnancies were followed up on a weekly basis with special observation of fetal behavior and use of color Doppler velocimetry. RESULTS: In Case 1, a monoamniotic twin pregnancy with cord entanglement close to the umbilical insertions was diagnosed at 10 weeks. Longitudinal follow-up showed intrauterine death of both twins at 15 weeks. In Case 2, entanglement of the umbilical cords of two monoamniotic triplets within a dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy was diagnosed at 10 weeks. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until 35 weeks when cord entanglement was confirmed at cesarean section. All triplets have since developed normally. In Case 3, monoamniotic twins were diagnosed at 18 weeks. color Doppler detected side-by-side insertion of the umbilical cords and Doppler velocimetry suggested an entanglement at the chorionic plate. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. cesarean section at 36 weeks confirmed cord entanglement at the chorionic plate. Postnatal computer angiography and morphological examination of the placenta showed the presence of superficial artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses and of deep arteriovenous shunts. The development of the twins was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of cord entanglement is feasible early in gestation. Future protocols are proposed to document the gestational age at detection, the location, and the Doppler flow patterns and to facilitate the assessment of short- and long-term development.
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4/199. Severe nonimmune hydrops fetalis and congenital corneal opacification secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: In parvovirus infections in animals, congenital anomalies are seen, but the teratogenic potential in humans seems fairly low. CASE: A fetus with hydrops, ascites and pleural effusion was seen at a prenatal ultrasound examination. Fetal cordocentesis was performed, and fetal blood was positive for parvovirus antibodies. Intravascular fetal blood transfusion was given at 21 and 23 weeks of gestation. At 39 weeks labor started spontaneously, and a 2,960-g, female infant was delivered. The newborn had bilateral opacification of the cornea. CONCLUSION: In this case a combination of fetal parvovirus B19 infection and congenital corneal opacification was seen. This case also demonstrates that blood transfusions in hydropic fetuses may reverse the hydrops and prevent intrauterine death.
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5/199. prenatal diagnosis of intrapericardial teratoma: a case report.

    A hydropic fetus that exhibited intrapericardial teratoma with marked pericardial effusion was prenatally diagnosed. Intrauterine pericardiocentesis was performed to diagnose and to treat hydrops. pericardiocentesis for tamponade secondary to a fetal intrapericardial teratoma might prevent fetal death and premature delivery.
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6/199. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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7/199. Familial association of congenital left heart abnormalities and sustained fetal arrhythmia.

    hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the most common cause of death from heart disease in the first week of life. There are reports about familial concordance by presumed morphogenetic mechanisms of abnormal embryonic blood flow with phenotypes of varying severity. The risk of having a child with a left heart lesion after a previously affected child may be as high as 5% to 12%. We present case reports from four families in which sustained fetal arrhythmia (three ectopic atrial tachycardias and one severe bradycardia due to excessive ectopic atrial beats) was demonstrated. Within these four families a close relative of the mother (a previous child, a brother, or a nephew) had severe left heart abnormality (three with HLHS and one with severe aortic valve stenosis). The association of sustained fetal arrhythmia of ectopic atrial origin and severe left heart abnormalities could be expected to occur by chance in a very low percentage of cases. We conclude that sustained fetal atrial ectopic arrhythmia is a congenital abnormality and should be considered as a risk factor for inherited congenital heart abnormalities.
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8/199. Prenatal percutaneous needle drainage of cystic sacrococcygeal teratomas.

    Prenatal ultrasound (US) permits in utero diagnosis of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), follow-up of tumor size, and the early identification of complications, allowing for a more timely and appropriate delivery. The recommended management of large SCTs is delivery by cesarean section (CS) to prevent dystocia, tumor rupture, hemorrhage, and death. However, even delivery by CS can be difficult, necessitating a large hysterotomy that adds to maternal morbidity. The authors report two cases of cystic SCTs in which prenatal percutaneous drainage allowed for an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. In the first case, a large unilocular cystic SCT was diagnosed at 31 weeks' gestation on prenatal US. The fetal presentation was breech, and the mass was steadily increasing in size, preventing spontaneous version. At 37 5/7 weeks, the cyst was percutaneously drained under US guidance allowing for successful external version. Repeat drainage just before induction of labor permitted a successful vaginal delivery. In the second case, the cystic SCT was percutaneously drained just before induction of labor at full term, again allowing for an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Prenatal percutaneous needle drainage of cystic SCTs offers an alternative to CS that results in decreased risks for both mother and fetus.
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9/199. prenatal diagnosis of a familial form of junctional ectopic tachycardia.

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a rare cardiac arrhythmia characterized by atrio-ventricular dissociation, a high rate junctional escape rhythm and poor clinical tolerance in neonates and infants. sudden infant death has been reported. The intra-uterine presentation of this arrhythmia is unknown. We report a familial form of JET with antenatal diagnosis. A sustained tachycardia at a rate of 170 beats/min with a 1:1 conduction was diagnosed in a hydropic fetus at a gestational age of 32 weeks. The older brother had presented with prenatal hydrops and junctional ectopic tachycardia was diagnosed at birth. Assuming that this arrhythmia was a JET, amiodarone was given to the mother in order to control the fetal tachycardia. The arrhythmia persisted with a 1/1 pattern but at a slower ventricular rate (140 beats/min). The ECG performed at birth revealed a narrow QRS tachycardia with a ventricular rate of 180 beats/min and a 1/1 retrograde conduction. amiodarone therapy was continued with the addition of propanolol. Postnatal echocardiography revealed normal chambers and left ventricular dysfunction with a left ventricular shortening fraction of 17 per cent. Subsequent ECGs and Holter monitoring demonstrated typical electrocardiographic features of JET. Both parents had a normal ECG and Holter monitoring. A fetal tachycardia of moderately high rate with a 1/1 retrograde conduction and poor cardiac tolerance can be due to JET. In such cases, the use of amiodarone can be considered as a first line drug.
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10/199. Feasibility of prenatal diagnosis of lysinuric protein intolerance by linkage analysis: a case report.

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive defect of cationic amino acid transport (CAA), relatively common in finland and italy. After weaning, LPI patients present poor feeding, vomiting and failure to thrive. A severe pulmonary complication and episodes of metabolic imbalance may lead to death. prenatal diagnosis has not been available due to lack of either biochemical or molecular markers to be used in the fetal period. The LPI locus has recently been assigned to chromosome 14q12, very close to the T-cell receptor alpha-chain (TCRA) locus. We carried out a prenatal diagnosis for LPI by linkage analysis in one LPI Italian family after CVS. For the haplotype analysis 11 dna markers from the LPI critical region were used (D14S742, D14S50, D14S283, five TCRA intragenic polymorphic sites, D14S990, MYH7 and D14S80). It was concluded that the haplotype analysis indicated that the fetus was healthy as he had inherited the two wild alleles of the LPI locus. After birth, the clearances of CAA were measured and found to be in the normal range, thus confirming the result of the prenatal diagnosis. The prenatal diagnosis of LPI can now be offered to families affected by LPI.
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