Cases reported "Fetal Diseases"

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1/130. Severe nonimmune hydrops fetalis and congenital corneal opacification secondary to human parvovirus B19 infection. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: In parvovirus infections in animals, congenital anomalies are seen, but the teratogenic potential in humans seems fairly low. CASE: A fetus with hydrops, ascites and pleural effusion was seen at a prenatal ultrasound examination. Fetal cordocentesis was performed, and fetal blood was positive for parvovirus antibodies. Intravascular fetal blood transfusion was given at 21 and 23 weeks of gestation. At 39 weeks labor started spontaneously, and a 2,960-g, female infant was delivered. The newborn had bilateral opacification of the cornea. CONCLUSION: In this case a combination of fetal parvovirus B19 infection and congenital corneal opacification was seen. This case also demonstrates that blood transfusions in hydropic fetuses may reverse the hydrops and prevent intrauterine death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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2/130. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO-alfa) in a mother alloimmunized to the Js(b) antigen.

    erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone and the principal regulator of erythropoiesis in the fetus, newborn, and adult. EPO-alfa is erythropoietin manufactured by recombinant human dna technology (rhEPO). After counseling, a pregnant woman with anti-Js(b) in her serum was started on rhEPO (600 U/Kg, biweekly) to prevent anemia secondary to serial donations of her blood for fetal transfusions. After a total of 25 rhEPO infusions and autologous donation of 8 units of whole blood, maternal hemoglobin prior to the elective cesarean section at 37 weeks was 11.3 gm/dL. serum EPO concentration was determined in paired maternal and fetal blood samples, before ultrasound guided intravascular transfusions, in this alloimmunized Js(b)-negative and another Rh(D) alloimmunized pregnancy to determine possible correlations between maternal and fetal serum EPO. rhEPO prevented anemia in a patient who donated 8 units of blood from 18-37 weeks of pregnancy without inducing adverse biological effects such as hypertension or thrombotic complications in the placenta. Data presented in this study suggest that EPO does not cross the human placenta.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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3/130. Antenatal therapy of smith-lemli-opitz syndrome.

    OBJECTIVES: smith-lemli-opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by an inborn error of cholesterol metabolism that results in deficiency of cholesterol and accumulation of the cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (DHC) and its epimer, 8-DHC. Affected patients present with congenital anomalies, growth restriction, and mental retardation. Postnatal treatment with cholesterol supplementation has been shown to improve plasma sterol levels and has resulted in improved growth and development in many patients. We hypothesized that prenatal supplementation of cholesterol could potentially arrest some of the adverse consequences of cholesterol deficiency at an earlier stage of development. methods: SLOS was diagnosed in the third trimester in a fetus initially identified by sonography with intrauterine growth restriction and ambiguous genitalia and confirmed by elevated levels of 7- and 8-DHC in amniotic fluid. Antenatal supplementation of cholesterol was provided by fetal intravenous and intraperitoneal transfusions of fresh frozen plasma (cholesterol level = 219 mg/dl). RESULTS: The in utero transfusions resulted in increased levels of fetal cholesterol, as measured in blood samples obtained by cordocentesis. In addition, fetal red cell mean corpuscular volume rose, which further indicated that the exogenous cholesterol was incorporated into the fetal erythrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal treatment of SLOS by cholesterol supplementation is feasible and results in improvement in fetal plasma cholesterol levels and fetal red cell volume. SLOS may be added to the growing list of human genetic disorders for which prenatal diagnosis is available and therapeutic intervention may be possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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4/130. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage: how long should children with good evolution be controlled? A case report.

    We report on a term infant with a severe fetomaternal hemorrhage that caused a serious anemia that was surmounted after several transfusions. After the initial complications, such as persistent pulmonary circulation, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, the outcome was good. We discuss the importance of a long-term follow-up of affected children, as well as their mothers. No clear parameters for a real prognosis are available. A follow-up is needed in order to detect possible complications in neurological development.
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ranking = 571.26562142415
keywords = fetomaternal, transfusion
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5/130. prenatal diagnosis of acute massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    We present here 2 cases of acute and 2 cases of chronic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage. A sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern may indicate chronic fetomaternal hemorrhage, but, when increased variability is observed in fetal monitoring, maternal hemoglobin F should be measured to exclude acute fetomaternal hemorrhage.
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ranking = 799.07186999381
keywords = fetomaternal
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6/130. Idiopathic intracranial haemorrhage in the fetus.

    Intracranial haemorrhage in the fetus has been reported with associated mortality and morbidity. This case report describes idiopathic subdural haematomas diagnosed at 32 weeks of gestation, with delivery by caesarean section of a live male infant in good condition at 34 weeks.
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ranking = 0.81076130111442
keywords = haemorrhage
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7/130. Twenty-four cordocenteses in one woman.

    We report on 2 consecutive pregnancies in a woman with a history of neonatal death secondary to Rhesus alloimmunization. Her first subsequent pregnancy was complicated by fetal hydrops at 20 weeks of gestation. The fetus received a total of 11 intrauterine transfusions, and was delivered at 38 weeks. In the patient's next pregnancy, the fetus developed hydrops at 18 weeks of gestation. Thirteen intrauterine transfusions were given to correct fetal anemia, and a healthy baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestational age. Continuation of intravascular transfusion therapy may represent a reasonable alternative to selective premature delivery even in cases with highly aggressive maternal Rhesus alloimmunization.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = transfusion
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8/130. prenatal diagnosis of fetal cerebellar lesions: a case report and review of the literature.

    The fetal cerebellar structure, size and consistency are looked at in every system survey. Among the acquired cerebellar events that might change the cerebellar consistency are haemorrhage, infections in utero and neoplasia. Additional fetal malformations, if present, assist in making the final diagnosis. We present a case of an isolated echogenic mass in one of the cerebellar hemispheres along with the differential diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.16215226022288
keywords = haemorrhage
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9/130. Intraventricular haemorrhage in utero. A case-report and review of the literature.

    Intraventricular haemorrhages (IVH) are the most commonly occurring intracranial haemorrhages in neonates, especially in preterm infants. The origin of IVHs is located in the germinal matrix. The cause of an IVH is a combination of intravascular, vascular and extravascular factors. The diagnosis is made by ultrasound. knowledge on the causes of antenatal haemorrhages lags far behind knowledge on the causes of postnatal haemorrhages. In cases of haemodynamic changes in utero, ultrasound could be useful to examine the foetal brain. The presence of an intracranial haemorrhage in utero greatly influences the prognosis of the infant.
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ranking = 1.459370342006
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/130. Fetal schistocytic hemolytic anemia and umbilical vein varix.

    A rare case of schistocytic hemolytic anemia presenting in a fetus secondary to a varix of the intra-abdominal umbilical vein is reported. A patient was referred to our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal hypoechoic finding in the fetal liver. Prenatal ultrasound showed turbulent flow through a 12-mm diameter dilatation of the fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein consistent with a varix. cardiomegaly also was noted. At birth, the 1098-g, growth-retarded, male neonate was in severe congestive heart failure secondary to anemia as the initial hemoglobin was 5 g/dL. Additional evaluation found the anemia to be secondary to schistocytic hemolysis. After the neonate received a transfusion of packed erythrocytes and supportive care, the anemia quickly resolved, and he was discharged to home doing well after a 6-week stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Prompt recognition of the varix prenatally and thorough evaluation of the newborn postnatally led to appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = transfusion
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