Cases reported "Fetal Diseases"

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1/126. Diprosopus (partially duplicated head) associated with anencephaly: a case report.

    Craniofacial duplication (diprosopus) is a rare form of conjoined twin. A 16 year old mother with a twin pregnancy delivered one normally formed baby boy and one diprosopus male. The malformed baby was 33 weeks of gestation with a single trunk, normal limbs and various degrees of facial duplication. Of the following structures there were two of each: noses, eyes, ears (and one dimple), mouths, tongues and, with bilateral central cleft lips and cleft palates. This was associated with holoprosencephaly and craniorachischisis. Internal organs showed no duplication. There were multiple congenital anomalies including diaphragmatic hernia, small lungs, two lobes of the right lung, ventricular septal defect, small adrenal gland and small left kidney with short ureter. The body also had a short neck, small chest cavities and kyphosis. X-ray revealed duplication of the vertebral column. The case presented here represents a type II of diprosopia of Rating (1933) and is the least common type reported. We also reviewed 22 recently reported cases of diprosopus. In addition to facial duplication, anencephaly, neural tube defect and cardiac malformations represent the more common congenital abnormalities associated with diprosopus. The pathogenesis of diprosopus is not well understood. Factors that play a role in diprosopus are probably similar to those factors (genetic, environmental and abnormal placental circulation) which affect monozoygotic twins as observed in this case report. Early ultrasonography diagnosis of diprosopus permits one to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.
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2/126. Recurrent fetal polycystic kidneys associated with glutaric aciduria type II.

    A woman had two pregnancies terminated in the 20th and 21st weeks of gestation after ultrasonographic detection of enlarged hyperechoic kidneys in both fetuses. The combination of polycystic kidneys and steatotic liver found at autopsy suggested glutaric aciduria type II (GA II), which was confirmed by biochemical investigation. GA II or multiple acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited defect of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which usually results in neonatal death. When pregnancy is terminated because of enlarged hyperechoic kidneys in the fetus, autopsy is crucial for establishing the correct diagnosis. The combination of polycystic kidneys and steatotic liver should bring GA II to mind, and prompt appropriate biochemical investigations so that genetic counselling and first trimester diagnosis can be offered in future pregnancies.
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keywords = kidney
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3/126. Disseminated intravascular meconium in a newborn with meconium peritonitis.

    A 3-day-old premature infant with meconium peritonitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and pulmonary hypertension died with respiratory insufficiency. An autopsy disclosed intravascular squamous cells in the lungs, brain, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Numerous pulmonary capillaries and arterioles were occluded by squamous cells, accounting for pulmonary hypertension. brain parenchyma surrounding occluded cerebral vessels showed infarct and gliosis. A mediastinal lymph node filled with squamous cells alluded to the mechanism by which these cells from the peritoneal cavity likely entered the bloodstream--namely, via diaphragmatic pores connecting with lymphatics. Thus, disseminated intravascular meconium rarely may complicate meconium peritonitis and have devastating consequences.
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4/126. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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5/126. prenatal diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. A case report.

    We present a case of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease diagnosed at 28 weeks' gestation by ultrasonographic examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fetal kidneys were symmetrically enlarged and highly echogenic by ultrasonographic examination and showed high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images by MRI. Cystic lesions were recognized by neither examination. In addition, the pulsatility index of the fetal renal artery was normal. These findings suggest a high water content in the renal parenchyma with tiny cysts and normal blood flow in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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6/126. Hereditary renal adysplasia in a three generations family.

    Renal agenesia is one of the more common urinary malformations. Renal agenesia can be unilateral, more frequently, or bilateral. This malformation can be isolated or present with other urinary and/or extra urinary anomalies. We report a family with renal agenesia. The proband was a fetus. Ultrasonographic examination at 15 weeks of gestation showed a left renal agenesia and a right multicystic kidney, absence of bladder and oligohydramnios. The same features were found at 19 weeks of gestation. The couple asked for termination of pregnancy. On pathologic examination the absence of left kidney was confirmed whereas the right kidney which measured 3.5 cm was filled with numerous cysts of 0.2 cm to 1 cm. of diameter and fibrosis. According to the Potter's classification these images are characteristic of a dysplasia type II. There was no hepatic fibrosis. family history revealed that the mother is in good health, she had previously a normal son. The father had a unilateral renal agenesia which was diagnosed after he had arterial hypertension when he was 25-years-old. The paternal grand father and his brother had unilateral renal agenesia which was shown by screening. This family shows that renal agenesia can be autosomal dominantly inherited and that the expressivity of this anomaly is variable.
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keywords = kidney
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7/126. prenatal diagnosis of pyloric atresia-junctional epidermolysis bullosa syndrome in a fetus not known to be at risk.

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (PA-JEB) is a highly lethal, inherited, autosomal recessive disease. Thus far, prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome was only realized on pregnancies at risk for recurrence. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman, first cousin to her husband, who had undergone amniocentesis for polyhydramnios. The karyotype was normal but the amniotic fluid contained acetylcholinesterase. A targeted scan at 25 weeks' gestation did not find spina bifida, but polyhydramnios with a dilated stomach, and several other anomalies: echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid, a thin skin which closely adhered to the nasal bones, narrow nostrils, abnormal ears, fisted hands, malposition of both first toes, and kidney malformation. Despite no previous case in the family, it was thought that sonographic findings were suggestive of the PA-JEB syndrome. A fetal skin biopsy was carried out at 28 weeks' gestation. The ultrastructural examination of fetal skin displayed JEB. Genetic analysis detected a homozygous mutation in the gene encoding integrin alpha 6. Termination of pregnancy was carried out at 29 weeks' gestation. These results illustrate that in the case of a fetus not known to be at risk, diagnosis of PA-JEB can be achieved by ultrasound findings leading to fetal skin biopsy and ultrastructural examination of blistered epidermis. Some new sonographic signs should raise the possibility of significant cutaneous desquamation and blister formation in a fetus, especially when there is positive amniotic acetylcholinesterase coupled with elevated alpha-fetoprotein or suspected pyloric atresia.
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8/126. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: three autopsy case reports.

    We report three autopsy cases of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in fetuses with a review of literature. The clinical manifestations in these cases of congenital CMV infection include intrauterine fetal death, hydrops fetalis, and CMV pneumonia associated with cardiovascular defect. The pathological characteristics were as follows: 1) the kidney was the most frequently involved organ, followed by lung and liver, 2) CMV inclusions were found predominantly in epithelial cells and to a lesser degree in endothelial cells, 3) intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells were frequently involved, and 4) inflammatory reaction around CMV inclusions was not prominent in the early stage of pregnancy. Diagnostic confirmation was obtained by in situ hybridization (ISH) using a biotinylated CMV-dna probe, which demonstrated intranuclear inclusions and sometimes recognized cells that did not show intranuclear inclusion.
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9/126. Prenatal echographic diagnosis of laryngeal atresia as part of a multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) syndrome.

    Prenatal echographic diagnosis of laryngeal atresia as part of a multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) syndrome: In this report we present the prenatal second trimester echographic diagnosis of laryngeal atresia in a male fetus with multiple associated congenital anomalies: oesophageal atresia, crossed fused ectopy of the right kidney, mild cutaneous syndactyly of fingers III-V and toes II-III, distinct facial appearance and single umbilical artery. Bilateral voluminous echogenic lungs were the major echographic diagnostic sign. The associated multiple congenital anomalies were not diagnostic for a distinct, recognizable multiple malformation syndrome.
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10/126. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatoblastoma in utero.

    A fetus with a huge hepatic tumor was detected by sonography at 36 weeks of gestation. The mass appeared as a single, solid and polylobular tumor located in the right lobe of the liver. Foci of hemorrhage, necrosis and some tiny calcifications were seen. The adjacent right kidney appeared normal but was displaced. The right adrenal gland was not visualized. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography further depicted the corresponding vascular anatomy of the tumor, including its vascularization pattern and blood supply. The tumor was situated to the right of the umbilical vein and portal sinus, possibly deriving its blood supply from the portal circulation. The fundamental findings suggested the diagnosis of hepatoblastoma by exclusion of other possibilities. The baby was delivered by cesarean section at 36 weeks' gestation, due to signs of fetal distress. Unfortunately, hypotension, tachycardia, and tachypnea developed shortly after birth. Surgical intervention was performed, but intractable bleeding occurred intra-operatively. The infant died at 6 days of age. autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. We believe this is the first reported case of the antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatoblastoma.
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