Cases reported "Fetal Diseases"

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1/96. Punctate epiphyses associated with turner syndrome.

    The radiographic observation of stippled calcification in cartilage defines the chondrodysplasia punctata group of bone dysplasias. Several other diseases may be associated with the radiographic finding of punctate epiphyses, usually uncommonly - for example, trisomy 21. Other more subtle chromosomal abnormalities also associated with punctate epiphyses include microdeletions of the x chromosome. A case of turner syndrome with punctate calcification of the epiphyses is described.
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2/96. prenatal diagnosis of thoracopelvic dysplasia. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Thoracopelvic dysplasia, a variant of asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome), is an uncommon skeletal disorder characterized by a small thorax, pelvic abnormalities and other complex, combined anomalies, including hypomelia, polydactyly and renal anomalies. CASE: A 32-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 0, was referred at 27 weeks' gestation due to polyhydramnios. Sonography revealed hydramnios, low fetal thoracic circumference (TC) and abdominal circumference (AC) ratio (0.78), skull and skin edema, increased nuchal translucency (7 mm), micrognathia, low-set ears, left cardiac deviation (66 degrees), overriding fingers, and club and rock-buttock feet. amniocentesis revealed a normal karyotype (46, XY). Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia was considered. At 40 weeks' gestation, a male infant was delivered vaginally. Besides the prenatal findings, cryptorchidism and high-arched palate were noted. radiography of the infant revealed a narrow, funnel-shaped thorax and small pelvis with short, flared iliac bones; poorly developed acetabulum; and small, shallow sciatic notch. No dyspnea was observed at five months postpartum. CONCLUSION: Thoracopelvic dysplasia should be considered when a low TC/AC ratio (< 0.8) is observed. In this case the final diagnosis was made after detailed exclusion of other disorders combined with observation of a small thorax. prenatal diagnosis of thoracopelvic dysplasia is possible.
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3/96. Fetal brain infection with human parvovirus B19.

    Intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection is known to be one of the causes of hydrops fetalis. However, there are few reports of the pathologic changes in the central nervous system. Postmortem examination of a fetus revealed multinucleated giant cells of macrophage/microglia lineage and many small calcifications around the vessels, predominantly in the cerebral white matter. parvovirus B19 genome dna was detected in the nucleus of the multinucleated giant cells and solitary endothelial cells by polymerase chain reaction amplification and in situ polymerase chain reaction methods. capsid antigen was also demonstrated in the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells by immunofluorescent assay. Thus, intrauterine B19 parvovirus infection could be associated with marked neuropathologic changes in the fetal brain at the midembryonal period. Neurologic follow-up of complications may be necessary for children who survive the intrauterine infection.
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4/96. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hypochondroplasia in a high-risk fetus.

    Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor type 3 (FGFR 3). prenatal diagnosis of HCH based exclusively on the sonographic measurements of the fetal skeleton is difficult and has not been reported. We describe a newborn infant with HCH who was born to a mother with achondroplasia (ACH) and a father with HCH. Serial sonographic measurements were recorded from 16 weeks of gestation. All measurements remained normal up to 22 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks of gestation, the long bones began to appear shorter than expected for gestational age, while the head measurements (biparietal diameter and head circumference) remained normal. The measurements were sufficiently different to distinguish from findings in normal and achondroplastic fetuses. Our findings suggest that it is possible to distinguish the normal fetus from a fetus affected with HCH and to distinguish HCH and ACH from each other based on the sonographic measurements alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of longitudinal sonographic measurements of HCH in the second and third trimesters.
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5/96. prenatal diagnosis of pyloric atresia-junctional epidermolysis bullosa syndrome in a fetus not known to be at risk.

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (PA-JEB) is a highly lethal, inherited, autosomal recessive disease. Thus far, prenatal diagnosis of this syndrome was only realized on pregnancies at risk for recurrence. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman, first cousin to her husband, who had undergone amniocentesis for polyhydramnios. The karyotype was normal but the amniotic fluid contained acetylcholinesterase. A targeted scan at 25 weeks' gestation did not find spina bifida, but polyhydramnios with a dilated stomach, and several other anomalies: echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid, a thin skin which closely adhered to the nasal bones, narrow nostrils, abnormal ears, fisted hands, malposition of both first toes, and kidney malformation. Despite no previous case in the family, it was thought that sonographic findings were suggestive of the PA-JEB syndrome. A fetal skin biopsy was carried out at 28 weeks' gestation. The ultrastructural examination of fetal skin displayed JEB. Genetic analysis detected a homozygous mutation in the gene encoding integrin alpha 6. Termination of pregnancy was carried out at 29 weeks' gestation. These results illustrate that in the case of a fetus not known to be at risk, diagnosis of PA-JEB can be achieved by ultrasound findings leading to fetal skin biopsy and ultrastructural examination of blistered epidermis. Some new sonographic signs should raise the possibility of significant cutaneous desquamation and blister formation in a fetus, especially when there is positive amniotic acetylcholinesterase coupled with elevated alpha-fetoprotein or suspected pyloric atresia.
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6/96. prenatal diagnosis of congenital hypophosphatasia in a consanguineous Bedouin couple. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: hypophosphatasia is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by low serum and tissue alkaline phosphatase activity, increased urinary excretion of phosphoethanolamine and ricketslike changes in the bone. CASE: We present a case of prenatal diagnosis of congenital hypophosphatasia in a consanguineous Bedouin couple. The case was diagnosed at 24.5 weeks of gestation. Sonographic evaluation revealed a fetus with short and deformed bones and a hypoechogenic skull. Based on the sonographic findings and the obstetric history of the couple, hypophosphatasia was diagnosed. The parents opted for pregnancy termination. Feticide was accomplished uneventfully. Laboratory findings confirmed the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This couple was prone to this metabolic disorder due to their consanguineous marriage and previous affected fetus. Early-first-trimester prenatal diagnosis by first-trimester chorionic villus sampling or second-trimester measuring of alkaline phosphatase activity in the amniotic fluid is required to exclude this lethal disease in subsequent pregnancies.
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7/96. prenatal diagnosis of campomelic dysplasia.

    A pregnant woman of 24 weeks' gestation underwent ultrasound examination for fetal anomaly screening. The ultrasound findings revealed a single fetus with biparietal diameter of 61 mm, which was consistent with menstrual dates. The thoracic cage was small compared to the abdomen with hypoplastic scapulae and normally ossified unfractured ribs. All bony structures demonstrated normal echogenicity. The upper long bones were normal length and shape. Both femurs and tibiae were obviously bowed anteriorly, and slightly shortened. Bilateral talipes equinovarus were clearly demonstrated. A prenatal diagnosis of campomelic dysplasia was made and was confirmed by postnatal radiography and autopsy. The sonographic diagnosis in this case was based on the findings of small thorax, hypoplastic scapulae and bowed tibiae and femurs.
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8/96. Ultrasonographic detection of fetal cranio-facial hemangioma: case report and review of the literature.

    A case of an isolated cranio-facial vascular anomaly, extending from the left parietal bone to the lateral margin of the omolateral orbit is presented. Detection and differential diagnosis of fetal hemangioma is important for a variety of reasons. First, it allows the prenatal growth of the mass to be evaluated. Second, it enables appropriate arrangements for delivery to be made including its timing and selection of the appropriate clinical team necessary to support the neonate. After birth these cranio-facial anomalies can regress spontaneously, but plastic surgery is often necessary.
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9/96. An autopsy case of Adams-Oliver syndrome.

    We report an autopsy case of a male fetus with Adams-Oliver syndrome. His mother was a healthy, 31-year-old woman and her family and past histories were unremarkable. Therapeutic termination was done at 28( 6) weeks gestational age due to oligohydramnios detected by antenatal ultrasonography. Chromosomal study revealed normal karyotype. On autopsy, characteristic transverse terminal defect of four extremities was found. Both feet were short and broad. All toes were rudimentary with no nails and fingers were irregularly short. On infantogram, all toe-bones were stubby and rudimentary. The middle and terminal phalanges of 2nd, 3rd & 5th fingers and the terminal phalange of 4th finger on the right hand were absent. The middle and terminal phalanges of 2nd & 5th fingers and terminal phalange of 3rd finger were defected on the left hand. His abnormalities were consistent with features of Adams-Oliver syndrome, which has not been reported in korea.
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10/96. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification.
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