Cases reported "Fetal Distress"

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1/13. Severe hemolytic disease from rhesus anti-C antibodies in a surrogate pregnancy after oocyte donation. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitization with rhesus anti-C antibodies is comparatively rare and usually benign. In pregnancies conceived using donor oocytes, the mother's blood group may differ from that of both the father and the oocyte donor, making blood group incompatibility more likely. CASE: twins, the result of a surrogate pregnancy using donor oocytes, were born with severe hemolytic disease due to rhesus anti-C antibodies. Both infants required exchange transfusion for profound anemia at birth. Isoimmunization in the surrogate mother was not detected antenatally. The twins were delivered by emergency cesarean section due to fetal compromise, detected fortuitously when the mother attended for routine fetal assessment at 35 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: Isoimmunization with anti-C antibodies is not always benign and may cause significant hemolytic disease. With the success of in vitro fertilization and oocyte donation, more infertile couples may use these methods to conceive, with or without surrogacy arrangements. In such cases, the provision of antenatal care may become a complex matter, involving several parties, and good communication between everyone involved is vital. In pregnancies conceived with donor oocytes, there may be a higher risk of blood group incompatibility, and special vigilance is warranted.
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keywords = transfusion
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2/13. Maternal ABO-mismatched blood for intrauterine transfusion of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Rh17.

    BACKGROUND: Clinically significant antibodies to high-incident antigens present a challenge in hemolytic disease of the newborn. Antigen-negative blood may be difficult to obtain for intrauterine transfusion (IUT). In these instances, maternal blood is de facto compatible regardless of an ABO mismatch. CASE REPORT: A group B/D-- woman with a history of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Rh17 (titer 256) presented to the obstetrical clinic at 12 weeks gestation for management of her third pregnancy. She consented to donate blood for possible IUT. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Washed maternal packed cells were suspended in saline to 75 percent Hct and irradiated before transfusion. The fetus was transfused via the intrahepatic vein. RESULTS: Ultrasound examination at 19 weeks indicated a hydropic fetus. The fetal blood group was O Rh , direct antiglobulin test 4 , and hemoglobin 22 g per L. A total of 368 mL of maternal blood was transfused during seven procedures. Labor was induced at 38 weeks, and a 2560-g male infant was delivered by Caesarian-section due to fetal distress. The infant grouped as B Rh , direct antiglobulin test negative. No group O red blood cells were detected. The hemoglobin level was 143 g per L rising to 209 g per L at discharge 3 days later. The indirect bilirubin was 55 micromol/L and remained stable during the hospital stay. phototherapy was discontinued after 1 day, and the infant was discharged without an exchange or top-up transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ABO-mismatched blood is an alternate source for IUT in instances when antigen-compatible allogenic blood is unavailable.
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ranking = 7
keywords = transfusion
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3/13. Treatment options in fetomaternal hemorrhage: four case studies.

    BACKGROUND: Significant fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is an uncommon event that places the fetus at risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Symptoms and signs at presentation are subtle and, if promptly recognized, appropriate management may permit the fetus to escape serious injury. CASES: Four cases of significant FMH were diagnosed in the high-risk obstetrical unit at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, during 2003. Three of the women complained of reduced fetal movements and were investigated initially with a non-stress test, a Kleihauer-Betke test, and ultrasound, including Doppler of the middle cerebral artery. These women all required emergency Caesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status. One fetus was treated by intravascular transfusion. Another identified case was transfused postnatally. One asymptomatic case was identified after spontaneous vaginal birth and also treated by neonatal transfusion. Neurological outcomes were good in all four cases. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced fetal movements may be the only complaint of FMH. Increased awareness is required to ensure a diagnosis is made. When a non-stress test for reduced fetal movement is non-reactive, a Kleihauer-Betke test should be ordered, as well as detailed ultrasonography, including fetal Doppler studies. The perinatal prognosis for FMH may improve by facilitating the appropriate use of fetal blood transfusion or delivery by Caesarean section.
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ranking = 3131.5448935438
keywords = fetomaternal, transfusion
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4/13. brain damage to the survivor within 30 min of co-twin demise in monochorionic twins.

    Single fetal death in a twin pregnancy in the late second or early third trimester is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rate in the surviving co-twin, especially in monochorionic twin pregnancies. The common causes are twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital anomalies of the fetus or anomalies of the umbilical cord-placenta. Here we report a case of monochorionic twin pregnancy in which one fetus had a single umbilical artery (SUA) while the co-twin had two umbilical arteries. The twin with SUA died in utero at the 30th week of gestation and the other fetus was delivered by cesarean section immediately due to fetal distress diagnosed by cardiotocography. disseminated intravascular coagulation and multicystic encephalomalacia have been observed in the surviving neonate. This case and review of the literature suggest that neurologic complication rates are also increased in monochorionic twin pregnancies with single fetal demise despite the immediate delivery as in our case.
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keywords = transfusion
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5/13. Ileal atresia and thrombo-embolic liver calcifications diagnosed after treatment with intrauterine laser coagulation therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: report of 2 cases.

    Ileal atresia is considered to be an acquired anomaly. It is thought to be caused by a mesenteric vascular accident during fetal life which leads to necrosis of downstream tissues. We present a case in which ileal atresia occurred after intrauterine laser coagulation therapy for a twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. The laser treatment might have been the etiological factor of the atresia. A second case in which thrombo-embolic calcifications were found in the liver is presented as well.
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ranking = 5
keywords = transfusion
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6/13. Intrauterine exchange transfusion of the fetus under ultrasound guidance: first successful report.

    The authors report the first successful case of fetal exchange transfusion performed in Rh disease. The patient was a gravida 3, para 1; a first ultrasound guided intra-funicular transfusion was carried out at 28 gestation weeks (Coombs test: 256, Liley's chart: zone III, fetal hemoglobin: 5.7 g/l). One week later a fetal exchange transfusion was decided because of the appearance of ascites, sinusoidal heart rate pattern, and Manning's score at 4. At 29 weeks of gestation an ultrasound-guided umbilical cord puncture was performed with a 16-gauge Tuohy needle, a catheter for epidural analgesia (Perifix) was inserted through the trocar. A total exchange of 126/-96 cm3 of 50% hematocrit (Hct) concentrated and irradiated blood without leukocyte and platelet was performed increasing fetal hemoglobin concentration from 3.9 to 11.9 g/l. A 2,040-gram girl was delivered by cesarean section at 33 gestation weeks with apgar score of 7/9/9 and she was given 4 total exchange transfusions in the Neonatal intensive care Unit. Two years later her development is normal. This new procedure seems easier than fetoscopy to achieve umbilical cord puncture and avoid excess blood volume while exact correction of anemia is possible. With more concentrated blood (70% Hct) the duration of the procedure is shortened.
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ranking = 8
keywords = transfusion
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7/13. lidocaine toxicity after maternal pudendal anesthesia in a term infant with fetal distress.

    There have been many reports of lidocaine toxicity especially after maternal paracervical block anesthesia. We recently treated a term infant with evidence of fetal distress who presented with symptoms of lidocaine toxicity after maternal pudendal anesthesia. The infant developed apnea and bradycardia soon after birth which responded to mechanical ventilation and epinephrine. A prolonged Q-T interval was noted on day 1 which normalized by day 3. Cord blood was assayed and revealed an elevated lidocaine level. lidocaine toxicity has been associated with fetal distress secondary to fetal ion trapping in the presence of acidosis. Although good response to supportive therapy occurred in our patient, other methods of therapy such as exchange transfusion and treatment of seizures may be required in some cases. awareness of this now uncommon syndrome will lead to prompt diagnosis, appropriate work-up, and management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transfusion
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8/13. Placental chorioangioma: a rare cause of fetomaternal transfusion with maternal hemolysis and fetal distress.

    Multiple placental chorioangiomas in a 31-year-old woman led to a severe, acute fetal-to-maternal transfusion and maternal hemoglobinuria from hemolysis of the fetal red blood cells. fetal distress was manifest by a sine wave fetal monitor pattern. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered by cesarean section. The infant did well after transfusion therapy.
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ranking = 2508.835914835
keywords = fetomaternal, transfusion
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9/13. Feto-maternal haemorrhage as a cause of fetal morbidity and mortality.

    Massive feto-maternal haemorrhage is a cause of significant fetal morbidity and mortality, but is often overlooked because screening for fetal erythrocytes in the maternal circulation has not been a routine procedure in stillbirths, fetal distress or neonatal anaemia; there are few recognized clinical symptoms or signs, or histopathological features. This report covers three cases. A screening blood test in the last month of pregnancy could be of value in detecting feto-maternal haemorrhage before irreversible damage to the fetus occurs.
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ranking = 1.0001282126044
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/13. Perforation of a placental fetal vessel by an intrauterine pressure catheter.

    Perforation of a fetal vessel on the placental surface by an intrauterine catheter is reported. The immediate recognition of this unusual complication is important. To minimize the risks of perforation, haemorrhage and infection, several precautions should be observed when inserting the catheter.
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ranking = 0.16668803543407
keywords = haemorrhage
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