Cases reported "Fetal Growth Retardation"

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1/594. prenatal diagnosis of smith-lemli-opitz syndrome in a pregnancy with low maternal serum oestriol and a sex-reversed fetus.

    A cytogenetically normal male fetus was subsequently found to have female external genitalia, a cardiac malformation and mid-trimester intra-uterine growth retardation by ultrasound examination. The maternal serum oestriol level was low. The combination of low oestriol and sonographic findings suggested Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome (SLO), which was confirmed by a markedly increased amniotic fluid level of 7-dehydrocholesterol. We review the differential diagnosis of apparent sex reversal in a fetus and low maternal serum oestriol level. To further examine the specificity of low maternal oestriol level as a marker for SLO a follow-up study of 12141 pregnancies screened for down syndrome using three biochemical markers: alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestriol was performed. 26 pregnancies had an oestriol level that was 0.25 MoM or less. SLO was not diagnosed clinically in any of the liveborn children ascertained through a low maternal oestriol level. Nine of the pregnancies ended in spontaneous miscarriage. Although the frequency of SLO in pregnancies with low maternal oestriol levels or sex-reversed fetuses is unknown, the diagnosis of SLO should, nevertheless, be considered in both clinical settings.
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2/594. Antenatal diagnosis of Bart's hydrops fetalis [correction of homozygous alpha thalassemia]. A case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of the Bart's hydrops fetalis [corrected]. METHOD: Bart's hydrops fetalis [corrected] was discovered by chance in the fetus of a female Chinese patient. Major intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, an immobile fetus, and cardiomegaly were the principal echographic signs. cordocentesis showed fetal anemia, and electrophoresis of fetal hemoglobin revealed the presence of Bart's hemoglobin. RESULT: As there is no known effective treatment, termination of pregnancy was proposed to the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Bart's hydrops fetallis [corrected] is a lethal condition. Early echographic signs (cardiothoracic index >0.50, placental thickening) can be screened during weeks 17-18 or even during weeks 13-14 of gestation. These signs would permit a reduction of invasive examinations in couples at risk.
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3/594. Extensive brain calcification in two children with bilateral Coats' disease.

    We report two children with bilateral Coats' disease associated with cerebral calcifications in the basal ganglia and deep white matter, asymptomatic at the time of their discovery. cerebellar ataxia developed secondarily in one of them. Both children were born small for date and had febrile convulsive seizures. Three similar patients have been previously reported, two of them in the same sibship; the third reported patient died of aplastic anemia. Bilateral Coats' disease in children should prompt systematic CT scan in search of cerebral calcifications. If present, neurological and genetic prognosis should be cautious.
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4/594. Hypocalvaria associated with intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital heart disease and camptomelia.

    We report an Omani child from an inbred family with a combination of hypocalvaria, intrauterine growth retardation, craniofacial disproportion, partial synostosis of the right coronal suture and a small mandible associated with congenital heart defect and bowing of the limbs. A literature search failed to reveal a similar case.
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5/594. siblings with a syndrome of hydrocephalus with patent aqueduct, growth retardation and associated anomalies.

    We report on male siblings with hydrocephalus with associated abnormalities including growth retardation, midline cleft palate and bilateral 'fisting' of the hands, providing evidence for a familial syndrome of hydrocephalus and associated anomalies.
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6/594. Hyperimmunoglobulin therapy for a twin fetus with cytomegalovirus infection and growth restriction.

    OBJECTIVE: cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin was administered to a pregnant woman with primary cytomegalovirus infection and placental involvement of 1 twin fetus, in whom growth restriction had developed. STUDY DESIGN: Inhibition of viral activity was attempted by administration of high-titer cytomegalovirus neutralizing antibodies for therapy of the involved fetoplacental unit and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in the uninfected twin fetus. RESULTS: After cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin infusions the placental edema decreased and the infected fetus started to grow once again, showing at birth only hepatosplenomegaly associated with viruria and cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acidemia. Moreover, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin g avidity increased and cell-mediated immunity improved. The other twin, who had negative results of cytomegalovirus culture and deoxyribonucleic acid detection at birth, was found to have cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid in the urine after 1 week. From the age of 9 months, however, both twins had persistent negative results of cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid detection. CONCLUSION: Although large-scale studies are needed to establish the real efficacy and the best therapeutic regimen, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin may be considered for treatment or prevention of fetal cytomegalovirus infection.
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7/594. Three cases of congenital growth hormone deficiency with micropenis and hypospadias: what does growth hormone have to do with it?

    This paper reports 3 cases of congenital GH deficiency with male pseudohermaphroditism. All 3 showed a normal male karyotype, hypospadias of different degrees, and, for 2 of them, micropenis. No mullerian structure was individualized since pelvic ultrasound and genitography were normal. Patient 1 was born with multiple anomalies and patient 3 showed partial agenesia of the corpus callosum. Only 1 patient showed complete anterior pituitary deficiency. Gonadotropin defects were not investigated. We postulate that GH might play a role in early testosterone stimulation, and thus in male sexual differentiation.
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8/594. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II syndrome, a generalized defect in fucose metabolism.

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II has been described in only 2 patients; herein we report extensive investigation of another patient. The physical stigmata were detected during prenatal ultrasonographic investigation. Sialyl-Lewis X (sLex) was absent from the surface of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and cell binding to E- and p-selectin was severely impaired, causing an immunodeficiency. The elevation of peripheral neutrophil counts occurred within several days after birth. A severe hypofucosylation of glycoconjugates bearing fucose in different glycosidic links was present in all cell types investigated, demonstrating that leukocyte adhesion deficiency II is not only a disorder of leukocytes but a generalized inherited metabolic disease affecting the metabolism of fucose.
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9/594. Small for gestational age infant in association with maternal prothrombin gene variant (nt 20210A).

    Most of disproportionate infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have an history of placental dysfunction with no explained cause. We report a case of an unexplained SGA infant with placental infarctions and thrombosis. Maternal thrombophilic disorder tests revealed that the patient was heterozygous for the A20210 prothrombin gene variant a newly identified thrombotic risk factor. It may be suggest that prothrombin gene variant, as factor v Leiden, could be a genetic risk factor for placental insufficiency.
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10/594. prenatal diagnosis of nonmosaic trisomy 9 in a fetus with severe renal disease.

    We report a case of nonmosaic trisomy 9 presenting at 21 weeks of gestation with polycystic, echogenic horseshoe kidney, collapsed bladder, absent amniotic fluid, and intrauterine growth restriction. color Doppler imaging demonstrated no blood flow signals from renal vessels. fetal blood sampling confirmed a 47,XX, 9 karyotype, with no evidence of mosaicism, and increased serum beta2-microglobulin levels of 10.7 mg/l, consistent with severe renal failure. A repeat scan at 23 weeks also revealed a dysmorphic face, bilateral microphthalmia, and a cerebellar vermian defect. Follow-up examinations showed progressive growth restriction leading to fetal death at 33 weeks of gestation. This report demonstrates that fetuses with nonmosaic trisomy 9 may present with severe renal abnormalities and confirms that cases seen in the second and third trimesters usually have a dismal outcome.
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