Cases reported "Fetal Growth Retardation"

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11/84. prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetics in a case of partial trisomy 14 and monosomy 21.

    We report an unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 21 which presented as fetal ventriculomegaly at 33 weeks gestation. Second trimester ultrasound had indicated normal fetal anatomy, including normal intracranial structures. Parental karyotypes showed a paternal balanced translocation: 46,XY,t(14;21)(q12;q21). The unbalanced translocation in the fetus resulted in trisomy for 14pter-->q12 and monosomy for 21pter-->q21. Postnatal examination showed that the male infant had a cleft palate, but no cleft lip, and mild dysmorphic features. Postnatal MRI revealed bilateral and symmetric dilatation of the occipital horns, atria, and temporal horns of the lateral ventricles. Molecular cytogenetic techniques were used to delineate further the breakpoint on chromosome 14 to a site distal of the D14S1071 locus and the breakpoint on chromosome 21 to a region between D21S1918 and D21S1902. More precise definitions of chromosomal breakpoints in such clinical cases should provide more accurate prognosis for individuals with unbalanced karyotypes and assist in the identification of putative developmentally important genes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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12/84. Confined placental mosaicism for trisomy 14 and maternal uniparental disomy in association with elevated second trimester maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin and third trimester fetal growth restriction.

    A case of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) and maternal uniparental isodisomy 14 identified after placental karyotype revealed trisomy 14 in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and minor dysmorphic features is reported. During the second trimester of the pregnancy, multiple marker screening revealed an increased risk for down syndrome of > 1 in 10. The maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MShCG) was markedly elevated at 4.19 MoM. amniocentesis revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Fetal growth restriction has been associated with elevated MShCG and placental aneuploidy with CPM for chromosomes 2, 7, 9 and 16. The present case of CPM for chromosome 14 was also associated with fetal growth restriction and elevated second trimester MShCG, suggesting a common link. Further studies need to be done to determine if indeed elevation of second trimester MShCG is associated with increased risk of CPM. The present case again demonstrates the need to perform placental karyotype in unexplained fetal growth restriction.
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ranking = 0.73182586337649
keywords = trisomy
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13/84. Post-zygotic origin of complete maternal chromosome 7 isodisomy and consequent loss of placental PEG1/MEST expression.

    Maternal UPD of chromosome 7 is associated with pre- and postnatal growth retardation (IUGR, PNGR) and silver-russell syndrome (SRS [MIM 180860]). We report a case of IUGR in a newborn with SRS stigmata. Using combined haplotyping and cytogenetic-FISH studies we characterized the lymphocytes, umbilical cord and four placental cotyledons. The results are consistent with complete maternal isodisomy 7 and trisomy 7 mosaicism of post-zygotic origin. The trisomic cell line was prevalent in trophoblast cells from two placental cotyledons. trisomy 7 of post-zygotic origin is a frequent finding, but maternal isodisomy 7, due to trisomic rescue has never been reported. PEG1/MEST expression was evaluated on placenta cDNA and a specific transcript was revealed only in the cotyledons with a high percentage of trisomic cells and the presence of the paternal chromosome 7 contribution, but not in the placental biopsies with maternal isodisomy 7. The histological features of the four placental fragments revealed that isodisomy 7 correlates with a pattern of cotyledonary hyper-ramification due to an increase of the branching angiogenesis, which could be the result of a defect of angiogenesis caused by the absence of PEG1 product. The severe hypo-ramification of the two cotyledons, showing trisomy 7 mosaicism, may be due to the triplicate dosage of genes on chromosome 7. The delayed fetal growth could be the phenotypic effect of the imbalance between imprinted and non-imprinted genes on chromosome 7 in the fetus or the result of abnormal placental function during pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.2927303453506
keywords = trisomy
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14/84. Maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 2: detection through 'atypical' maternal AFP/hCG levels, with an update on a previous case.

    We report a case of maternal uniparental disomy 2, detected through routine screening of placental karyotypes following the finding of 'atypical' AFP/hCG levels in the second trimester, with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) but otherwise normal outcome at term. Although the child remained small, subsequent early physical and mental development has also been normal. Additionally, we report long-term follow-up of an earlier case, again with relatively normal physical and mental development. The significance of atypical AFP/hCG results and the predictive value of prenatal testing for UPD2 in trisomy 2 confined placental mosaicism (CPM) cases are discussed.
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ranking = 0.1463651726753
keywords = trisomy
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15/84. A second case of intrauterine growth retardation and primary hypospadias associated with a trisomy 22 placenta but with biparental inheritance of chromosome 22 in the fetus.

    We report a case of severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and hypospadias in association with trisomy 22 diagnosed following chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Subsequent analysis of amniotic fluid cultures showed a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. As a previous case had been reported with similar abnormalities, in association with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 22, molecular studies were also performed. Microsatellite marker studies showed biparental inheritance. follow-up studies after delivery showed a normal cell line in lymphocytes with the trisomy appearing to be confined to the placenta. The present case concurs with other earlier reports that maternal UPD for chromosome 22 has no impact on the phenotype. The features seen in the fetus are most likely the result of placental dysfunction due to trisomy, tissue-specific mosaicism and/or the effects of local growth restriction.
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ranking = 1.0245562087271
keywords = trisomy
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16/84. Postnatal overgrowth by 15q-trisomy and intrauterine growth retardation by 15q-monosomy due to familial translocation t(13;15): dosage effect of IGF1R?

    We report a 4-year-old boy, a 6-month-old girl, and a 17-week-old fetus all with a chromosomal imbalance derived from a balanced translocation t(13;15)(q34;q26.1) of their father. The boy had a partial trisomy for 15q26.1-qter (46,XY,der(13)t(13;15)(q34;q26.1)) and postnatal overgrowth, as well as craniosynostosis, facial anomalies, and finger joint contractures, while the girl with the same chromosomal aberration did not show overgrowth, although she had similar craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. The fetus had a partial monosomy for 15q26.1-qter and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with a BAC clone covering the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF1R) that is located to 15q25-q26 revealed three copies in the boy, one copy in the fetus, and two copies in their phenotypically normal father. Since deletion of IGF1Rhas repeatedly been reported to be associated with IUGR, it is tempting to speculate that the dosage of IGF1R may have determined growth in these children.
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ranking = 0.79886939753237
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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17/84. umbilical cord pseudocyst in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    An umbilical cord pseudocyst was detected in the 28th week of gestation in a fetus complicated with growth restriction and polyhydramnios. The combination of cord pseudocysts, growth restriction, and polyhydramnios prompted us to perform a detailed ultrasonographic examination (gray scale and three-dimensional), which revealed the presence of micrognathia, overlapping fingers, and congenital heart defects, features characteristic of trisomy 18. karyotyping confirmed a diagnosis of trisomy 18. After spontaneous labor onset, the infant was delivered at 31 weeks of gestation, and died soon after delivery. An umbilical cord pseudocyst is a good marker for the prenatal detection of trisomy 18.
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ranking = 1.0245562087271
keywords = trisomy
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18/84. Umbilical artery aneurysm: prenatal identification in three fetuses with trisomy 18.

    aneurysm of the umbilical artery is an extremely rare anomaly of the umbilical cord, with only two cases being documented in the English language literature. We report three cases diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound in the third trimester, all associated with single umbilical artery and multiple structural fetal anomalies. Prenatal karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 in all three cases. umbilical cord anomalies, although rare, are associated with significant fetal morbidity and mortality. This report identifies umbilical artery aneurysm as an additional prenatal feature of trisomy 18.
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ranking = 0.87819103605179
keywords = trisomy
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19/84. trisomy 16 confined to the placenta.

    Two cases with trisomy 16 confined to the placenta are presented. prenatal diagnosis was indicated because of fetal growth retardation. In case 1, a phenotypically normal but small-for-date boy was born. In case 2, the fetus turned out to be triploid on cordocentesis. In both instances the trisomy 16 was recovered from the placenta. Recovery indicates that the abnormality was present in the placenta during the time of fetal growth retardation, which supports an aetiological relationship. Strict appliance of the current models cannot readily explain the observed discrepancies. In case 2, a chimeric placenta as a result of a vanishing twin is assumed. Cases of placental trisomy 16 published after 1988 are reviewed. It is concluded that confined placental trisomy 16 can cause intrauterine growth retardation if present in both the direct preparation and the villus culture. The chances of finding a chromosomally abnormal fetus (mosaic trisomy 16, triploidy) after diagnosis of trisomy 16 in chorionic villi are low but warrant further investigations.
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ranking = 0.87819103605179
keywords = trisomy
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20/84. Postnatal placental confirmation of trisomy 2 and trisomy 16 detected at chorionic villus sampling: a possible association with intrauterine growth retardation and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein.

    Detection of trisomy 2 and trisomy 16 mosaicism through chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is not an infrequent finding. We describe here two cases, one of non-mosaic trisomy 2 and the other of high level mosaicism for trisomy 16. amniocentesis in both cases demonstrated non-mosaic 46,XY karyotypes. Each pregnancy continued to delivery of liveborn, normal-appearing boys; both pregnancies were complicated by severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Postnatal studies of placental biopsies in both cases confirmed the original CVS findings, whereas cord blood karyotypes were normal in both boys. Both children have demonstrated adequate catch-up growth.
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ranking = 1.7563820721036
keywords = trisomy
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