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1/186. pastoral care for perinatal and neonatal health care providers.

    health care workers in the perinatal and neonatal environments experience many emotions as they encounter stressors day after day. The chaplain, one of many on the multidisciplinary team, can serve as a valuable resource for other team members. This article provides an overview of the various supportive roles the chaplain can assume. A case presentation highlights pastoral care of staff and family across the continuum from the perinatal to the neonatal units. ( info)

2/186. anaphylaxis in labor secondary to prophylaxis against group B streptococcus. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Two strategies have been recommended by the Centers for disease Control and Prevention and approved by the American College of obstetrics and gynecology to help prevent group B streptococcal disease in the newborn. Both involve using penicillin in labor. However, the potential for allergic and even anaphylactic reactions to penicillin exists. CASE: A patient was treated for risk factors for group B streptococcus in labor and suffered a serious anaphylactic reaction to penicillin; it resulted in an emergency cesarean section. Although the patient and infant were eventually discharged, the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and suffered acute tubular necrosis that required dialysis. CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis against group B streptococcal sepsis is of proven benefit, but the possible harm to the mother and fetus from treatment with penicillin must be recognized. ( info)

3/186. Management of cervical cerclage after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    The optimal management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in a patient with a cerclage is controversial. The issues are whether the latency period between rupture of membranes and delivery is decreased if the cerclage is removed and whether there is an increased rate of maternal or neonatal infection if the cerclage is kept in place. The data are sparse in directing management of women with prophylactic cerclages placed earlier in their pregnancies who rupture membranes. Latency seems to be increased if the cerclage is kept in place, but maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity is increased also. In women at early gestational ages, keeping the cerclage in place may be warranted until labor ensues. In more advanced gestations, it seems preferable to immediately remove the cerclage upon diagnosis of PPROM. ( info)

4/186. Preterm premature rupture of membranes in a patient with the hypermobility type of the ehlers-danlos syndrome. A case report.

    OBJECTIVES: This report wants to focus on the risk of severe prematurity in patients with the hypermobility type of the ehlers-danlos syndrome (EDS), a heritable disorder of connective tissue. Although various obstetrical complications have been reported in patients with EDS, most reports specifically comment on the severe complications in patients with the vascular type of EDS, including uterine and arterial rupture. pregnancy outcome in patients presenting the hypermobility type of EDS is poorly documented. CASE: A 33-year-old nullipara was referred for preconceptual genetic counseling with a history of easy bruising, generalized joint hypermobility and chronic arthralgia and myalgia. The diagnosis of the hypermobility type of EDS was confirmed on clinical examination. During her first pregnancy, she underwent a prophylactic McDonald cerclage at 14 weeks' gestation. Premature rupture of membranes occurred at 23 weeks' gestation. A female infant was delivered at 26 weeks and died 3 h after birth. Electron-microscopic examination showed collagen fibre abnormalities in the fetus' skin, which were compatible with the diagnosis of EDS. CONCLUSIONS: patients with the hypermobility type of EDS can have an increased risk for pregnancy complications, including prematurity due to cervical incompetence and to premature rupture of membranes. We therefore demand the clinician's alertness for possible signs of this underdiagnosed type of EDS and recommend the collaboration between the obstetrician and the medical geneticist in the obstetrical management of these patients. ( info)

5/186. Treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch): preliminary experience.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with the intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch). STUDY DESIGN: patients with iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes and without evidence of intra-amniotic infection underwent transabdominal intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate through a 22-gauge needle. The study was approved by the Institutional review Board of St Joseph's Hospital in Tampa, florida, and all patients gave written informed consent. RESULTS: Seven patients with iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes underwent placement of an amniopatch. Membrane sealing was verifiable in 6 of 7 patients. Three patients had iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes after operative fetoscopy, 3 cases were after genetic amniocentesis, and 1 was after diagnostic fetoscopy. Three pregnancies progressed well, with restoration of the amniotic fluid volume and no further leakage. Two patients had unexplained fetal death despite successful sealing. One case of bladder outlet obstruction had no further leakage, but oligohydramnios persisted and did not allow unequivocal documentation of sealing. One patient miscarried from twin-twin transfusion, but the amniotic cavity was sealed. CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes can be treated effectively with an amniopatch. The technique is simple and does not require knowledge of the exact location of the defect. Unexpected fetal death from the procedure may be attributable to vasoactive effects of platelets or indigo carmine. Although the appropriate dose of platelets and cryoprecipitate needs to be established, the amniopatch may mean that iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes no longer needs to be considered a devastating complication of pregnancy. ( info)

6/186. Intra amniotic candidiasis. Case report and meta-analysis of 54 cases.

    We present a case of mid pregnancy loss with retained intrauterine contraceptive device associated with fetal candida infection. review of English literature identified 53 additional cases of fetal candidal infection, with 17 associated with an IUCD in situ. The presence of an IUCD was associated with delivery at a statistically significant earlier gestational age when compared to cases not associated with an IUCD (23.3 /- 4.9 vs 31.6 /- 7.0, p < 0.001). Seventy-seven percent of fetal candidal infections associated with an IUCD were systemic (heart, brain, liver, gastrointestinal, lung) compared to 33% of cases not associated with an IUCD. In contrast to bacterial intraamniotic infections there was a low incidence of maternal febrile morbidity. An hypothesis as to the pathogenesis of Candidal infections in the presence and absence of an IUCD is offered as well as a paradigm for the management of the gravid patient with an IUCD in situ. ( info)

7/186. Puerperal and intrapartum group A streptococcal infection.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical variables characteristic of non-epidemic intrapartum or puerperal group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. methods: The records of 47 patients diagnosed with intrapartum or puerperal GAS infection over a 6 1/2 year period at Hadassah-University Hospital-Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem were reviewed. Data regarding 25,811 women, the general population of women that delivered during that period, were obtained from their computerized medical records. Frequency distributions, t-test, chi-square, and Spearman's Rank Correlation were used, as appropriate, to analyze and compare demographic and clinical variables associated with development of GAS infection, its clinical course and subsequent development of septic shock. RESULTS: Mean age of mothers with GAS infection was higher than that of our general pregnant population (30.4 versus 27.4 years, P = 0.0019), and a higher proportion of GAS infected patients (30% versus 12%, P < 0.005) experienced PROM. Thirty-one (66%) women had fever as their sole presenting symptom, eight (17%) had fever and abdominal pain, seven (15%) had fever and abnormal vaginal bleeding, and one patient (2%) presented with a rash. Three patients (6%) developed a septic shock. Two of these patients presented with symptoms more than 14 days after delivery. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the characteristics of non-epidemic intrapartum or puerperal GAS infection. Data from our study and review of the literature suggest that some patients who develop septic shock may present later in the puerperium than patients with an uncomplicated GAS infection. ( info)

8/186. Failure of amniotic septostomy in the management of 3 subsequent cases of severe previable twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: Amniotic septostomy has been described as a method to treat twin-twin transfusion syndrome. A case report of 3 patients treated in this way is described. CASE REPORT: Three subsequent patients, who presented with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, were treated by amniotic septostomy. All 3 showed initial improvement in the amniotic fluid volume and mobility of the donor fetus. However, all three pregnancies were lost within 5 days of the amniotic septostomy due to ruptured membranes and premature labour. CONCLUSION: In our experience, amniotic septostomy did not improve the pregnancy outcome in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Possible reasons for this are discussed. ( info)

9/186. Fatal early onset infection in an extremely low birth weight infant due to morganella morganii.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper reports a case of chorioamnionitis due to morganella morganii in a mother who presented with ruptured membranes at 24 weeks' gestation and was treated with dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin. Her premature infant developed severe early onset infection due to the same organism and expired. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical case report of M. morganii infection complicating preterm rupture of membranes is presented. Possible risk factors for maternal and neonatal infection with this organism as well as the therapy of neonatal M. morganii infection are discussed. RESULTS: risk factors in the mother included having a cervical cerclage in place and treatment with dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin. The major risk factors in the infant were maternal chorioamnionitis and extreme prematurity. The mother responded to treatment with ampicillin, metronidazole, and gentamicin following delivery and had an uncomplicated recovery. Her infant developed severe early onset M. morganii infection complicated by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and severe acidosis and expired. Postmortem cultures of pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, and blood were positive despite treatment with gentamicin, an antibiotic to which the organism was sensitive. CONCLUSION: M. morganii may cause serious infection in pregnancy and in the neonatal period. The use of dexamethasone and prophylactic ampicillin may have increased the risk of infection with this ampicillin-resistant organism. The failure of gentamicin to sterilize the infant's blood and body fluids emphasizes the necessity of treating such infections with a combination of an aminoglycoside and a third-generation cephalosporin, such as cefotaxime. ( info)

10/186. fetal heart rate monitoring casebook. Amnioinfusion as fetal therapy.

    amniotic fluid (AF) plays multiple roles in fetal development and wellbeing. A global consideration of the possibilities of AF manipulation allows for the maximum benefits to be derived from assessing and selectively augmenting AF in clinical practice. ( info)
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