Cases reported "Fetomaternal Transfusion"

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1/20. The importance of simple microscopy.

    A case of severe neonatal anaemia, the cause of which was found to be severe fetomaternal haemorrhage is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by simple microscopic examination of the maternal blood using the technique of acid elution, the Kleihauer-Betke test. In the differential diagnosis of anaemia of a newborn, the diagnosis of fetomaternal haemorrhage must be considered and the simple Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed on the maternal blood as soon as possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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2/20. Massive fetomaternal transplacental hemorrhage as a perinatology problem, role of ABO fetomaternal compatibility--case studies.

    BACKGROUND: Massive fetomaternal transplacental hemorrhage is not simply a problem of possible alloimunization in Rh incompatibility but also endangers the fetus (newborn) by massive anemization. Bleeding from placental vessels can occur after small trauma to the gravid uterus with mild or no clinical signs (bleeding or spotting, pain, hypertonus). The rupture of anchoring villi related to early uterine contractions is also possible. In the case of slow blood loss, the fetus reacts by adequate or inadequate compensatory reactions (hydrops fetus). Rapid and massive blood loss is followed by perinatal hypoxic damage and finally death. Our goal was to map out the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in regard to specific neonatal care. CASE REPORT: We evaluated four cases of fetomaternal transfusion during a 2-year period with special regard to postpartum adaptation of the newborn and the perinatal outcome. The incidence of adverse outcomes following massive fetomaternal transplacental hemorrhage was 50% (2 of 4). There was one perinatal death and one infant was affected by spastic quadriplegia. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis, it is possible to use cardiotocography (decreased variability, sinusoid pattern), ultrasound (biophysical profile) and special hematological tests for quantitative determination of fetal erythrocytes in the maternal blood. For the treatment of such cases one should consider premature termination of pregnancy or intraumbilical transfusion.
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ranking = 0.35469261320178
keywords = blood loss
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3/20. Detection of massive transplacental haemorrhage by flow cytometry.

    flow cytometry has been shown to be a more accurate and sensitive method than the Kleihauer-Betke test for the measurement of feto-maternal haemorrhage in Rh(D) incompatibility. This report describes the successful use of flow cytometry to detect and monitor the management of a massive transplacental haemorrhage (105 ml) of fetal Rh(D) positive cells in a Rh(D) negative woman. The report highlights the accuracy and reproducibility of the test and the stability of a blood sample when transferred 596 kilometres to a central testing facility.
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ranking = 3
keywords = haemorrhage
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4/20. autopsy findings in a series of five cases of fetomaternal haemorrhages.

    AIMS: Fetal blood cells enter the maternal circulation in up to 95% of pregnancies, but usually in minute volumes. Haemodynamically significant fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) is a much rarer event reported in approximately 1 in 2800 pregnancies. Most of the literature on this phenomenon emphasises the clinical aspects, and there is no comprehensive description of the autopsy findings. We present a series of five fatal FMH. The aim of this series is to highlight some of the autopsy findings that may prompt consideration of a diagnosis of FMH and lead to appropriate confirmatory testing and counselling of the affected couple. methods: The five cases were referred to the Children's Hospital at Westmead for full autopsy. A Kleihauer-Betke test was performed on the mother's blood within one week of delivery in each case. RESULTS: The infants ranged in age from 27 to 40 weeks gestation (mean 36.6 weeks) with a mean birth weight of 2793 g. The estimated volumes of fetal blood lost ranged from 443 to 104 mL (mean loss 243 mL). The estimated percentage of fetal blood volume loss was an average of 107% (i.e., greater than the entire blood volume of the fetus). No other causes of hydrops were identified. pallor was often noted, and in most cases the autopsies were markedly bloodless with large vessels collapsed. Where the brain:liver ratio could be applied, two fetuses showed a mild increase in ratio, while one infant showed moderate growth restriction with a ratio of 6.2:1 (normal ratio 2.8:1 on non-macerated fetuses over 28 weeks gestation). Placental abnormalities included thrombosis of the umbilical vein and intervillous 'haematomas' in two cases. The most striking microscopic feature was the presence of intravascular nucleated RBC within virtually all organs. Placental intervillous (i.e., within the maternal vascular compartment) nucleated red blood cells were also seen in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The autopsy findings of FMH can be subtle and easily overlooked unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. The most reliable autopsy features are pallor, subcutaneous oedema or serous effusions, and intravascular nucleated red blood cells (RBC) in organs or more specifically in the placental intervillous space. In all cases of unexplained fetal death a Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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5/20. Idiopathic chronic fetomaternal haemorrhage resulting in hydrops--a case report.

    INTRODUCTION: We report a case of idiopathic chronic fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) that developed in the late trimester. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient presented with decreased fetal movement at 38 weeks gestation. Antenatal follow-up was uneventful with normal serial ultrasound performed at 22 and 35 weeks. Prior to delivery, the cardiotocography (CTG) was abnormal with decreased baseline variability and late deceleration. Emergency lower segment caesarean section was performed. Upon delivery, a hydropic neonate with a haemoglobin level of 3.9 g/dL was noted. The Kleihauer-Betke test was positive, confirming FMH. OUTCOME: The neonate later developed intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and spastic cerebral palsy on follow-up. DISCUSSION: It is possible for FMH to occur late at the third trimester leading to detrimental effect. The fact that FMH can occur without antecedent risk factors underscores the importance of further research, and a high index of suspicion.
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ranking = 3
keywords = haemorrhage
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6/20. Massive feto-maternal haemorrhage with good perinatal outcome following failed external cephalic version.

    OBJECTIVE: To reinforce the risk of feto-maternal haemorrhage associated with external cephalic version for breech presentation. METHOD: A single case report with a literature review. RESULTS: Our case report was associated with the largest feto-maternal haemorrhage following external cephalic version reported so far. The perinatal outcome in this case was favourable despite a significant amount of fetal haemorrhage. The literature review did include cases with unfavourable outcomes. No reliable method of monitoring fetuses with feto-maternal haemorrhage has been reported, although middle cerebral artery Doppler studies appear to show promise. CONCLUSION: External cephalic version is useful in the management of breech presentations at term, but it is not without risks and clinicians need to be aware of this.
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ranking = 4
keywords = haemorrhage
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7/20. The issue of anti-D: an integrated seamless approach from recognition of need to bedside administration.

    BACKGROUND: The appropriate and timely administration of Anti-D immunoglobulin to Rhesus (D) negative women who have delivered Rhesus (D) positive babies is a vital part of obstetric care. Anti-D has an especially high profile in ireland because of the tragic inadvertent transmission of hepatitis c to Irish women in past decades. AUDIT: We have reviewed our policy and procedures pertaining to the administration of Anti-D for sensitising events during pregnancy and postnatally, in the Mid-Western health Board in 1999/2000. As a result, major changes were made in the storage, issue, recording and administration of Anti-D. New procedures in the transfusion laboratory and in the maternity hospital have been accepted by scientists and midwives and supported by haematology and obstetric medical staff. The pharmacy and haematology laboratory no longer have a role in this programme. IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CHANGE MANAGEMENT: As a result of these changes, the storage, issuing and tracking of Anti-D has become the responsibility of the hospital blood bank. Measurement offoeto-maternal haemorrhage (FMH) is now the responsibility of bio medical scientists in blood bank, utilising both flow cytometry (increasingly recognised as the gold standard method) and the Kleihauer method (Kleihauer-Betke).The programme has moved from a doctor-administered IV Anti-D Ig, to a midwife-administered IM preparation. Prescription remains the responsibility of the doctor.These changes are facilitated by the protocol guided issue of the appropriate dose of Anti-D Ig by bio medical scientists to midwives. The issue of the Anti-D Ig occurs simultaneously with issue of results of mother and baby's serology testing and estimation of volume of FMH.These major changes have been guided by audit and needs assessment and require close liaison between medical, nursing and laboratory scientific staff in haematology, transfusion and obstetrics. CRITICAL INCIDENT AUDIT-CASE REPORT: Before new procedures became official policy, a critical incident audit allowed us to pilot our protocol and to revise it using draft new procedures. In this critical incident we describe successful management of a patient with a large foeto-maternal haemorrhage. This incident supported the need for the procedural enhancements already underway. This critical incident re-emphasised the need for the planned systems improvements to be introduced quickly.
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ranking = 1
keywords = haemorrhage
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8/20. Assessment of fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    Kleihauer examination of peripheral blood cannot be used reliably to detect transplacental fetal-maternal haemorrhage in mothers with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). In Rh(D) negative pregnancies diagnostic confusion with a large fetal-maternal haemorrhage could result in the administration of inappropriately excessive amounts of anti-D immunoglobulin, and the inability to diagnose and quantify transplacental haemorrhage in maternal HPFH by current methods could result in insufficient anti-D administration and subsequent Rh(D) sensitisation. Accordingly, a method to detect and quantify fetal-Rh(D) positive maternal haemorrhage using erythrocyte fluorescent immunocytometry was developed. An indirect immunofluorescence method with IgG anti-D immunoglobulin as the primary antibody was used, combined with quantitative analysis on a fluorescence activated cell sorter. The method was accurate, specific, and sensitive and could detect a contaminating population of 0.1% Rh(D) positive cells in Rh(D) negative blood--a level of fetal-maternal haemorrhage well covered by a single dose of 500 IU of anti-D immunoglobulin.
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ranking = 4.5
keywords = haemorrhage
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9/20. Occult fetomaternal haemorrhage as a cause of fetal mortality and morbidity.

    Spontaneous fetomaternal haemorrhage is an important, but usually overlooked, cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Although fetomaternal bleeding in the third trimester of pregnancy is common it is normally less than 0.1 ml. A fetal macrotransfusion (greater than 5 ml) is uncommon, but is important because it is insidious, unexpected and usually occurs in completely normal pregnancies. This paper analyses the perinatal mortality and morbidity associated with occult fetomaternal haemorrhage at the Royal women's Hospital, Melbourne. It may lead to fetal distress before and during labour, unexplained stillbirth, or nonhaemolytic neonatal anaemia. A Kleihauer test on maternal blood will readily detect fetomaternal bleeding, and we describe a simple way of calculating the absolute volume of fetal red cells present. Greater awareness of the problem may eventually lead to diagnosis sufficiently early to permit effective treatment.
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ranking = 3
keywords = haemorrhage
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10/20. Detection of fetomaternal haemorrhage by an immunofluorescence technique.

    An inexpensive and simple technique for assessing fetomaternal bleeds in cases of Rh(D) incompatibility is described. The method is unlikely to replace the acid elution technique, but it may be of use in cases where results are in doubt owing to the presence of F cells of maternal origin.
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ranking = 2
keywords = haemorrhage
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