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1/82. Heat-related illnesses and deaths--missouri, 1998, and united states, 1979-1996.

    Although heat-related illness and death are readily preventable, exposure to extremely high temperatures caused an annual average of 381 deaths in the United States during 1979-1996. Basic behavioral and environmental precautions are essential to preventing adverse health outcomes associated with sustained periods of hot weather (daytime heat index of > or = 105 F [> or = 40.6 C] and a nighttime minimum temperature of 80 F [26.7 C] persisting for at least 48 hours). This report describes four heat-related deaths that occurred in missouri during 1998, summarizes heat-related deaths in the united states during 1979-1996, describes risk factors associated with heat-related illness and death, especially in susceptible populations (young and elderly, chronically ill, and disabled persons), and recommends preventive measures.
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2/82. Unusual fatal mechanisms in nonasphyxial autoerotic death.

    The diagnosis of autoerotic death is most often made when there has been accidental asphyxia from ropes or ligatures used by the deceased as a part of his or her autoerotic ritual. Three cases of probable autoerotic death are reported in which the mechanisms of death involved hyperthermia, sepsis, and hemorrhage, respectively. Case 1: A 46-year-old man was found dead in bushland clothed in a dress, female undergarments, and seven pairs of stockings/pantyhose. The underwear had been cut to enable exposure of the genitals. The recorded daily maximum temperature was 39 degrees C, and the deceased had been taking the drug benztropine. Death was attributed to hyperthermia due to a combination of excessive clothing, high ambient temperature, and prescription drug side effect. Case 2: A 40-year-old man was found dead in his boarding house. At autopsy, a pencil was found within his abdominal cavity with perforation of the bladder and peritonitis. Death was attributed to peritonitis/sepsis following intraurethral introduction of a pencil. Case 3: A 56-year-old man was found dead lying on his bed following massive rectal hemorrhage. A blood stained shoe horn was found nearby. Death was attributed to hemorrhage following laceration of the anal canal with a shoe horn. The diagnosis of autoerotic death may be difficult when typical features are absent, however, any unusual injury associated with genitourinary manipulation must raise this possibility.
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3/82. Heat-related illnesses, deaths, and risk factors--Cincinnati and Dayton, ohio, 1999, and united states, 1979-1997.

    During the summer of 1999, a heat wave occurred in the midwestern and eastern united states. This period of hot and humid weather persisted from July 12 through August 1, 1999, and caused or contributed to 22 deaths among persons residing in Cincinnati (18 deaths) and Dayton (four deaths). A CDC survey of 24 U.S. metropolitan areas indicated that ohio recorded some of the highest rates for heat-related deaths during the 1999 heat wave, with Cincinnati reporting 21 per million and Dayton reporting seven per million (CDC, unpublished data, 1999). This report describes four heat-related deaths representative of those that occurred in Cincinnati or Dayton during the 1999 heat wave, summarizes heat-related deaths in the united states during 1979-1997, describes risk factors associated with heat-related illness and death, and recommends preventive measures.
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4/82. Disseminated mucormycosis caused by absidia corymbifera leading to cerebral vasculitis.

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of subcutaneous hematoma and fever of unknown origin. Acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed and empirical antimicrobial treatment and induction chemotherapy were started. After initial defervescence, fever relapsed 2 days after the onset of neutropenia. The CT scan of the lung was consistent with an invasive fungal infection. Treatment with amphotericin b was started and antimicrobial treatment was continued with liposomal amphotericin b because of an increase in creatinine later. The fever persisted and the patient suddenly developed progressive neurological symptoms. CT scan of the head suggested cerebral infarction and angiography of the extra- and intracranial arteries showed signs of vasculitis. Six days after the onset of neurological symptoms cerebral death was diagnosed. autopsy revealed non-septate, irregularly branched hyphae in various histologic sections including brain. absidia corymbifera could be isolated from lung tissue confirming the diagnosis of disseminated mucormycosis. In this case, angiographic findings suggested severe cerebral vasculitis which was in fact caused by thromboembolic dissemination of fungal hyphae. This case underlines the fact that cerebral symptoms in febrile neutropenic patients are highly indicative for fungal infections of the brain.
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5/82. Contralateral reexpansion pulmonary edema.

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is an unusual complication of thoracentesis. Significant morbidity can result, and death is reported in 20% of cases. It is typically manifested as edema within a lung that has recently been reexpanded. Few reports document contralateral edema formation. We present a case of recurrent left-sided pulmonary edema after repeated drainage of a right-sided pleural effusion due to hepatic hydrothorax. We believe this is the first reported case of recurrence and only the fifth overall case of contralateral RPE. We also review the pathophysiology, treatment, and case reports of contralateral RPE. physicians should be aware of the complications of thoracentesis, particularly RPE, given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with it.
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6/82. Fatal hyperthermia in hot baths in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    The authors report the case of a 47-year-old black man with a history of multiple sclerosis who was found dead in a bathtub, head above water, with a body temperature of 105.7 F. Results of a complete autopsy and toxicologic screen were negative. Individuals with multiple sclerosis, if immersed in hot water, develop motor weakness, which may be so severe as to prevent them from getting out of the water, whether they be in a bathtub or whirlpool bath. In this case, the individual was trapped in a bathtub in which there was a continuous flow of hot water. This overwhelmed an already impaired thermoregulatory mechanism, causing hyperthermia and death.
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7/82. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with ATRA--a manifestation of the basic disease or the treatment.

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered the recommended induction treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the pre-ATRA era pulmonary bleeding was a common cause of death in these patients, mostly due to disseminated intravascular coagulation which was further exacerbated by the administration of chemotherapy. Although ATRA syndrome, the most serious adverse effect of ATRA treatment, involves the lungs, pulmonary hemorrhage has only rarely been reported as a manifestation of ATRA syndrome. Here we describe 2 patients who developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage during treatment with ATRA. The possible mechanisms of pulmonary bleeding in these cases are discussed.
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8/82. Acute interstitial pneumonitis. Case series and review of the literature.

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) is an acute, idiopathic interstitial lung disease characterized by rapidly progressive diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia requiring hospitalization. The case-fatality ratio is high. Previous reports suggested that survivors of the acute event have a favorable outcome. We undertook this study to examine the natural history of survivors. We had observed several patients who experienced recurrent episodes of AIP and chronic progressive interstitial lung disease. We sought to determine longitudinal survival in these patients and to compare our experience with that in the medical literature. overall, we identified 13 biopsy-proven cases of AIP. The mean patient age was 54 years in our review, which is identical to previous reports. Twelve patients were hospitalized and all 12 required mechanical ventilation. overall hospital survival was 67%. All patients demonstrated abnormalities in gas exchange at presentation. Radiographs typically demonstrated bilateral patchy densities that progressed to a diffuse alveolar filling pattern in nearly all cases. All biopsy specimens showed organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Longitudinal data were available for 7 patients. Two died of AIP recurrences. A third died of complications of heart failure shortly after hospital discharge. One patient progressed to end-stage lung disease and required lung transplantation. Two patients experienced persistent pulmonary symptoms, accompanied in 1 by progressive lung fibrosis. One patient had nearly complete recovery of lung function 2 years following AIP. (Follow-up information was unavailable for 2 survivors.) In our literature review, 5 of 7 patients reported experienced some recovery of lung function. One case of progressive interstitial lung disease requiring lung transplantation was reported. The reported mortality was much higher than in our experience (74% versus 33%). The mean time from symptom onset to death was 26 days, compared with 34 days in our experience. The use of corticosteroids did not appear to influence survival, although this has not been tested in a rigorous manner. The better survival in our series may be related in part to a survivor selection bias. In contrast to previous reports, we found that survivors of AIP may experience recurrences and chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease. We did not identify any clinical or pathologic features that predict mortality in these patients. Likewise, there were no features that predicted the longitudinal course in survivors. Further study to identify causal factors is required in the hope of preventing morbidity and mortality related to this disease.
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9/82. High maternal fever during gestation and severe congenital limb disruptions.

    Hyperthermia is defined as a temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C over the normal core body temperature. It is a proven teratogen in animals and in humans. The type of defects induced by hyperthermia in experimental animals are: anencephaly/exencephaly, encephalocele, microphthalmia, arthrogryposis, abdominal wall defects, limb deficiencies, embryonic death, and resorption. In humans it has been observed that infants prenatally exposed to hyperthermia presented with spina bifida, encephalocele, microphthalmia, micrognathia, external ear anomalies, cardiac defects, hypospadias, gastrointestinal defects, cleft lip and/or cleft palate, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, hirschsprung disease, mobius syndrome, oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum, and spontaneous abortions. We describe an additional case with severe limb deficiencies whose mother had fever over 39 degrees C for 2 days in the second and in the fourth month of amenorrhoea. We conclude that, based on the degree of development of the humeri and the femora and the type of limb deficiencies, this case presents a disruption that most probably occurred in the fourth month of gestation.
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10/82. Fever and multisystem organ failure associated with 17D-204 yellow fever vaccination: a report of four cases.

    BACKGROUND: In 1998, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of three patients who developed severe illnesses days after yellow fever vaccination. A similar case occurred in 1996. All four patients were more than 63 years old. methods: Vaccine strains of yellow fever virus, isolated from the plasma of two patients and the cerebrospinal fluid of one, were characterised by genomic sequencing. Clinical samples were subjected to neutralisation assays, and an immunohistochemical analysis was done on one sample of liver obtained at biopsy. FINDINGS: The clinical presentations were characterised by fever, myalgia, headache, and confusion, followed by severe multisystemic illnesses. Three patients died. Vaccine-related variants of yellow fever virus were found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of one vaccinee. The convalescent serum samples of two vaccinees showed antibody responses of at least 1:10240. Immunohistochemical assay of liver tissue showed yellow fever antigen in the Kuppfer cells of the liver sample. INTERPRETATION: The clinical features, their temporal association with vaccination, recovery of vaccine-related virus, antibody responses, and immunohistochemical assay collectively suggest a possible causal relation between the illnesses and yellow fever vaccination. Yellow fever remains an important cause of illness and death in south america and africa; hence, vaccination should be maintained until the frequency of these events is quantified.
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