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1/9. Case of sepsis caused by bifidobacterium longum.

    We report a case of sepsis caused by bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum.
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2/9. Septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint due to pyonex.

    We present a case of septic arthritis of a lumbar facet joint with an associated epidural abscess. A 13-year-old boy was hospitalized with acute severe back pain and fever after pyonex was done. The infection was precisely localized with magnetic resonance imaging, bone and gallium scintigraphy. He responded to antibiotic therapy. We suppose that the infection was caused by pyonex because the blood cultures were negative, and the patient had an abrupt onset of severe pain and fever 24 h after the acupuncture.
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3/9. Enteroviruses and sudden deafness.

    A young, healthy man presented with sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. The results of the workup and neuroimaging were normal, as were the auditory brain stem responses. methylprednisolone pulse therapy was associated with significant hearing improvement within 10 days. A history of a short self-limited febrile illness preceding admission (with headache, photophobia, myalgia and fatigue), a raised serum c-reactive protein level and transient leukopenia suggested an infectious cause. Lumbar puncture revealed a mononuclear pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, with negative cultures but positive polymerase chain reaction test results for enterovirus, which was later cultured from the patient's stool. The patient's wife and baby had had a similar febrile illness without hearing loss 10 days earlier, and an outbreak of enterovirus meningitis was identified in the area, which was associated with familial clustering and echovirus serotype 4 infection. The varied causes of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, which should include enterovirus, are reviewed here.
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4/9. A subdural abscess and infected blood patch complicating regional analgesia for labour.

    We report two very unusual cases of infection complicating labour analgesia. The first case was a sub-dural abscess presenting with deep-seated backache seven days after combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labour. The second was a painful lumbar swelling and septicaemia that presented three days after a blood patch for a post dural puncture headache. Because of their complicated and unusual presentation, the diagnosis and management of both were initially delayed.
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5/9. Epidural blood patch with allogeneic blood for post-dural puncture headache.

    A parturient suffered post dural puncture headache following accidental dural puncture during attempted epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Post partum fever was regarded as a contraindication to autologous epidural blood patch; compatible and infection-free allogeneic blood was therefore used with good effect and without apparent complications.
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6/9. magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of spinal epidural abscess.

    In 3 patients with epidural abscess, 2 in the cervical spine and 1 in the lumbar spine the definite diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging (MR). In 1 patient computerized tomography was performed but the correct diagnosis was revealed only by MR. The infections were all acute and due to staphylococcus aureus organisms. One patient developed a tetraparesis on the third day, before the diagnosis was established or antibiotic treatment initiated. The other 2 showed only minor and passing neurologic deficits. None was subjected to laminectomy. In 2 cases the diagnosis was confirmed by puncture. None of the patients had a preceding trauma or a known focus for the staphylococcal infection.
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7/9. fever, frontal sinus mass, and CSF pleocytosis in a 44-year-old man.

    Intracranial complications arising from frontal sinusitis occur infrequently. However, they can progress with such rapidity that the clinical situation becomes far advanced before they are recognized. Radiographic imaging techniques may not be definitive early in the course of these complications. The infectious disease service was asked to evaluate a middle-aged man with acute global headache and nasal discharge for two weeks. CSF pleocytosis (3,600 WBC/mm3) was documented on lumbar puncture, and a dense mass was noted on sinus radiographs. At surgery, a large bony lesion was found extending from the right frontal sinus into the adjacent ethmoid sinus and nasal-frontal duct. The authors discuss the bacteriology, pathogenesis, and potentially serious intracranial and extracranial complications of frontal sinusitis which were considered during their evaluation of this patient.
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8/9. thrombolytic therapy for prosthetic cardiac valve thrombosis.

    To determine the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy for prosthetic valve thrombosis, a composite series of 41 patients who received either streptokinase or urokinase intravenously for this disorder were analyzed. The series comprised 3 patients treated at rhode island Hospital and 38 previously reported on. Short-term success was achieved in 32 patients (78%). Prosthetic valve thrombosis recurred in seven (22%) of the successfully treated patients, four of whom were retreated with thrombolytic therapy. A favorable clinical outcome was observed in each. fever and venipuncture bleeding were the most frequent side effects. Systemic embolization occurred in 4 (15%) of 26 patients with either aortic or mitral prosthetic valve thrombosis. None of these latter patients experienced a permanent neurologic or circulatory deficit. It is concluded that thrombolytic therapy is of value in the treatment of prosthetic valve thrombosis.
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9/9. Spinal epidural abscess.

    This paper describes problems in the diagnosis and management of six patients with spinal epidural abscess. Since the clinical findings in this disease process are frequently misinterpreted, one must be careful to exclude this diagnosis in any patient with fever, leukocytosis, back pain and recent infection or back trauma. Alcoholic patients, in particular, seem at high risk for missed diagnosis since the clinical findings are frequently misinterpreted to be complications of alcoholism. Suspicion of spinal epidural abscess should lead to immediate lumbar puncture with manometrics as well as myelography. Once the diagnosis is established surgery should be immediate. Gram stains and cultures taken at the time of lumbar puncture or at operation will dictate appropriate antibiotic therapy. The cause of infection can be fairly well determined by the location of the abscess and a knowledge of the pathogenesis. prognosis seems directly dependent on the preoperative neurologic status of the patient.
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